Shad Darshan, which means “six philosophies” in Hindi, is a term used to refer to the six classical schools of Indian philosophy. These schools are often studied together as they present different perspectives on the nature of reality, the purpose of life, and the path to liberation.
The six schools of Indian philosophy are:
Samkhya: This school is based on the idea that everything in the universe can be categorized into two basic principles, purusha (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). The goal of this school is to achieve liberation by understanding the true nature of these principles and realizing the difference between them.
Yoga: This school emphasizes the importance of physical, mental, and spiritual practices to achieve union with the divine. Yoga includes practices such as meditation, breath control, and ethical behavior to help the practitioner reach a state of inner peace and liberation.
Nyaya: This school is focused on the study of logic and reasoning. The goal of this school is to develop a clear and systematic understanding of reality by using logical methods.
Vaisheshika: This school is based on the idea that the universe is made up of discrete, indivisible particles called atoms. The goal of this school is to achieve liberation by understanding the true nature of these atoms and their interactions with one another.
Mimamsa: This school is focused on the study of Vedic texts and the rituals associated with them. The goal of this school is to achieve liberation by performing these rituals correctly and understanding their significance.
Vedanta: This school is based on the study of the Upanishads, which are philosophical texts that explore the nature of reality and the self. The goal of this school is to achieve liberation by realizing the true nature of the self and its relationship to the ultimate reality.
Overall, the Shad Darshan provides a comprehensive view of the different philosophical traditions in India and the various ways of understanding the nature of reality and achieving liberation.