Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham Bangalore

RYT – 300 Hr Yoga TTC Level – 2

300 – Hrs  Yoga Teacher Training Certificate Course in Bangalore, India. (Offline/Online)

RYT – 300 Hr Yoga TTC Level – 2

Total Fee for the Training(For Indian Citizens Only): INR 10,000(Registration Fee) + INR 55,000 (Course Fee)  = INR 65,000

Total Fee for the Training(For Non-Indian Citizens Only): USD 150(Registration Fee) + USD 950 (Course Fee)  = USD 1,100

  • Yoga Manual (01)
  • T-Shirt (01)
  • Catheter Tube (01)
  • Jala Neti Pot (01)
  • Certificate
  • Excluded with accommodation and food
Upcoming Batches
  • 10 June 2024 & 20 Jun 2024
  • 01 July 2024 & 15 July 2024
  • 01 August 2024 & 15 August 2024
  • 01 Sep. 2024 & 15 Sep. 2024
  • 01 Oct. 2024 & 15 Oct. 2024
  • 01 Nov. 2024 & 15 Nov. 2024
Professional Yoga Teacher Training

300 Hour Advanced
Yoga Teacher Training Course In Bangalore, India.

We deeply believe that yoga is not only an ancient art, but also a very precious treasure which is extremely helpful in our contemporary world. It is especially beneficial for  individuals suffering from psycho-somatic disorders.

Our yoga school has a team of experienced and highly qualified teachers from various yogic styles and traditions. We come together to share the knowledge and benefits of yoga with students – on a practical and theoretical level. We work towards integrating ancient yogic traditions into our contemporary world and promoting yoga as an art of living as well as a very effective path to well-being of the body, mind and soul.

We believe that everyone has different needs and preferences. To give you choice and variety we teach different styles of Hatha Yoga, in 300 hr Multi-Style yoga includes Hatha Yoga, Vinyasa Yoga, Gentle Yoga, and Yin Yoga.  We deeply understand the anatomical differences as well as limitations and pre-dispositions, which we are all born with. Our trainings are focused on adjustments for students of all levels. Our 300-hour yoga teacher training courses are internationally recognized and registered with Yoga Alliance USA.  

Why 300-Hour Yoga TTC?

Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham’s Advanced Teacher Training program is designed for those students who have completed an approved 200 Hour Teacher Training as designated by the Yoga Alliance, USA. The 300-Hour advanced yoga teacher training course builds upon the fundamental concepts taught in the 200-hour course and deepens your understanding and practice. The 300 Hour Yoga Teacher Training Course in Bangalore, India prepares you to teach yoga principles, methods, alignment, modifications and techniques that are more advanced than those in the 200-hour course.

In the 300-hour program we concentrate on the art of teaching yoga, the sequencing of yoga classes based on multi-style yoga. It includes Hatha Yoga, Vinyasa Yoga, Gentle Yoga, Yin Yoga, alignment & adjustments, and the healing aspect of yoga.

This is a second level of training which allows you to advance your yoga teaching skills and become an expert in many teaching styles for many different kinds of students.

Our experienced teachers will train you in several aspects of Yoga: starting from asanas, pranayama, mudra, bandha, shatkarma, dharana, pratyahara & dhyana. You will be taken through the art of designing yoga classes, to functional anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, biomechanics and yoga philosophy. There will be a focus on practical’s and teaching methodology.

As our groups are small you will have an opportunity to teach a lot, and improve your practical skills. We give each of our student’s personal care and constant feedback. Our aim is to prepare you to be an independent, wise and flexible teacher who is able to customize a class to every client, even the most challenging one. We also train you to take classes for students with special needs and health issues. 

Batches and Timings for
300 Hr Teacher Training

Batches: Week-End

Timing: 10.00am – 05.00pm
Duration: 3 Months
Course Fee: INR 65,000
Module: Non-Residential

Batches: Week-End

Timing: 08.30am – 05.00pm
Duration: 3 Months
Course Fee: INR 65,000
Module: Non-Residential

Batches: Week Days

Timing: 10:30am – 5:00pm
Duration: 40 Days
Course Fee: INR 65,000
Module: Non-Residential

Batches: One Month Intensive

Timing: 8:30am – 05:00pm
Duration: One Month
Course Fee: INR 65,000
Module: Non-Residential

Batches: One Month Intensive

Timing: 8:30am – 01:30pm
Duration: One Month
Course Fee: INR 65,000
Module: Residential

Batches: Tailor Made

Timing: Self-Paced
Duration: Self-Paced
Course Fee: INR 65,000
Module: Non-Residential

Which Style of Yoga taught in the 300 Hour Yoga Teacher Training?

The two words, “Ha” (Sun) and “Tha” (Moon), make up the word “Hatha,” which is of Sanskrit origin. Hatha Yoga simply means a stubborn or rigid type of yoga. This type of yoga is for maintaining the balance between the body, mind, and spirit. Hatha Yoga includes a complete set of physical postures, or asanas, with different breathing techniques. It is an ancient technique that has been practiced by people for a long time. Lord Shiva, also known as Adiyogi, discovers yoga and all its styles. So you can link Hatha yoga to Shaivism, but later on, Siddhas and Naths continue the tradition. The followers of Goraknath were also involved in this practice. Hatha Yoga is an essential style of yoga if you are at the beginner level.

Hatha Yoga is way more than doing asanas in a continuous series. It is actually a divine way to attain the finest stage of salvation. Hatha is also practiced to purify the Pingla Nadi (connected with the sun energy of the body) and the Ida Nadi (connected with the moon energy of the body). Nadis are also known as the energy channels of the body.

Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham conducts a beginner & intermediate level course of 300 hours of yoga teacher training in Bangalore, India. The course explains Hatha Yoga through theoretical and practical classes taught by experienced gurus of the school. We also assist you in getting the most out of Hatha Yoga by doing it in the most enjoyable way possible.

Vinyasa Yoga simply helps you link every asana with breathing. It tells you how to move from one posture to another by making the right synchronization of the breath. The thing that makes a Vinyasa class different from other yoga classes is that no two Vinyasa classes are alike. There are a variety of postures in the Vinyasa style of yoga. The sequence is the same, but there is always variation in the asanas.

Surya Namaskar, also known as a “Sun Salutation,” is the most common yet most complex type of Vinyasa style. While performing Surya Namaskar, proper attention is given to the inhalation and exhalation processes. Its every movement is maintained by the inhalation and exhalation of the breath.It is highly beneficial for keeping you active while maintaining your health. Whether it’s about physical fitness, mental fitness, or emotional growth, Vinyasa Yoga is the best in every aspect.

Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham, 300-Hour Yoga TTC in Bangalore, India includes theoretical and practical classes in the Vinyasa Style of Yoga. The theoretical class explains the origin of Vinyasa yoga and how it evolved over time. The practical class helps you gain the confidence to perform and teach vinyasa asanas with confidence. 

Worldwide Accredited Certification

                          Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham teacher training certificate course is accredited by Yoga Alliance USA.

Karuna Yoga Lineage and Teaching Tradition

While contemporary in application and language, all our teachings are based on the thousands of years old Vedic and Yogic traditions of India.

The source of our practice and teachings is Swami Satyananda Saraswati from Bihar school of yoga, asana, pranayama, mudra, bandha, shat-karma, yoga Nidra, Trataka, Ajapa Japa, meditation. B. K. S. Iyengar alignment principle, restorative yoga, and Vinyasa style of yoga inculcated from Tirumalai Krishnamacharya Ashtanga Yoga, from Mysore.  

We practice and teach Swami Satyananda Saraswati, B. K. S. Iyengar & Tirumalai Krishnamacharya. Yoga of Synthesis which aims at the harmonious development of a human being through the practice of all three styles of hatha yoga. 

Meet Our Gurus

Dr. S. Karuna Murthy

(Hatha, Ashtanga Yoga & Kinesiology)

Dr. Chow Siddhartha

(Philosophy, Life-style & Meditation)

Yogi Sudhansu Mohanty

(body alignment and asana)

Dinesh Thakur

(Vinyasa Flow & Anatomy Physiology)

Read What Our Alumni Say
about the Course

Video Reviews

Why choose Karuna yoga Vidya Peetham?

Explore Deep

Are you looking for a deeply proficient yoga teaching, beyond the surface level yoga based only on physical postures?

Teach With Professional

Do you want a professional yoga teacher training with in-depth knowledge and skills to teach others Professionally?

Get Authentic Wisdom

Do you want to learn yoga from authentic Indian teachers with a rich heritage and deep wisdom?

YTTC Course Detail Summary

Course Syllabus - 300 Hour Yoga Teacher Training In Bangalore, India

The following subjects are indicative of what you will study on this course:-

❏ Anatomy & Physiology

Deep insights into the inner workings of the human body 

❏ Sanskrit

Learn Sanskrit names of postures and their pronunciation 

❏ Asana Lab

Art of adjustments 

❏ Asana Lab

How meditation is an integral part of Yoga and how to practice it 

❏ Teaching Methodology

Classroom Set up and Orientation, Class Levels and Prerequisites, Class Etiquette, Application of modifications for individual needs & Business approach 

❏ Chants/Mantras

Proper recitation of chants and mantras can transform energy in different areas of the body as well as improve concentration, memory and focus 

❏ Techniques Training and Practice

Transitioning into &transitioning out of Asana. Touch, somatic, and self-transformation. Beginner to intermediate level. 

❏ Kinesiology

To understand different movement of human body at minor and major joints levels. Biomechanics of stretching

❏ Philosophy

The broader set of Vedic ideas that have influenced the development of modern Yoga 

❏ Postural Integration

Advanced methodology 

❏ Yoga philosophy

Theoretical and Applied 

❏ Yoga Sutras

The spiritual framework of all Yogic practice 

❏ Asana

Understanding the right way to practice them and their benefits.

❏ Prop usage

Using physical props to support postural understanding, enhance the benefits of the pose and facilitate healing 

❏ Pranayama

Learn to interpret breathing patterns and provide practices to correct and improve physical condition 

❏ Anatomy of the subtle body

Chakras, Pranas, Nadis & how these unseen energy structures play a role in our health 


  1. Yoga Mantra Chanting

1.1. Introduction

1.Ganesha Mantra

2.Guru Stotra

3.Saraswati Prayer

  1. Yoga Mantra Chanting
  2. iv) Patanjali Mantra
  3. vi) Surya Namaskar Mantra

vii) AstangaYoga Mantra 

4.1. Surya Namaskara (sun salutation)

4.2. Introduction

  1. ii) Preparation

iii) General contra-indications

  1. iv) General benefits
  2. v) Time of practice
  3. vi) Awareness

vii) Conclusion

viii) Duration

  1. ix) Beeja mantras

Surya Namaskara  Mantras

4.3. The Twelve Sun Mantras

4.4. Bija Mantras

4.5. Suryanamaskara Benefits

4.6. Suryanamaskara Benefits Effects on the Muscles

  1. Strength
  2. Balance
  3. Composure
  4. Erect posture
  5. Enhancing posture

4.7. Interaction with the Vital Organs

  1. Respiratory system
  2. Circulatory system

iii. Digestive system

  1. Urinary system
  2. Skin
  3. Nervous system

vii. The Endocrine System

viii. Pituitary

  1. Pineal
  2. Thyroid/parathyroid
  3. Thymus

xii. Adrenal glands

xiii. Pancreas

xiv. Reproductive organs


  1. Surya Namaskara (sun salutation)

Beginners Level

Chapter – 4.1 Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation) Sivananada School of Yoga Style

Chapter – 4.2. Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation) Satyananada School of Yoga Style

Chapter – 4.3. Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation) Vivekananada School of Yoga Style

Intermediate Level

Chapter – 4.4. Chandra Namaskara (Moon Salutation) 

  1. Foundation of Asana
  2. Hatha Yoga View on Asana
  3. Patanjali concept on Asana

2.6. Classification of Asana

  1. Beginners
  2. Intermediate
  3. Advanced

2.7. Isometric static & Dynamic Asana

  1. Dynamic practices
  2. Static practices

2.8. Perspective view on Asana

  1. Introduction to Asana
  2. Standing Asana
  3. Forward Bending Asanas
  4. Backward Bending Asanas
  5. Vajrasana Group of Asanas
  6. Sitting Asana
  7. Meditation Asanas
  8. Spinal Twisting Asanas
  9. Relaxation Asanas
  10. Supine and Prone Asana
  11. Inverted Asanas
  12. Core Asana
  13. Hip Opening Asana
  14. Balancing Asanas 

Beginners Level

  1. Samasthiti(upright or still)
  2. Tadasana – (mountain pose)
  3. Ardhakati Cakrasana(half lateral wheel pose)
  4. Vrksasana (tree pose)
  5. Ardha Uttanasana(standing half forward bend)
  6. Padahastasana (hand to foot pose)
  7. Ardha Chakrasana (half wheel pose)
  8. Utthita Vayu Muktasana(standing wind releasing pose)

Intermediate Level

  1. Garudasana (eagle pose)
  2. Utkatasana (mighty pose)
  3. Utthita Trikonasana (extended triangle pose)
  4. Parivritta Trikonasana (revolved triangle pose)
  5. Utthita Parsvakonasana (extended side angle pose)
  6. Parivritta Utthita Parsvakonasana (revolved extended side angle pose)
  7. Parsvottanasana(side intense stretch)
  8. Virabhadrasana -1 (warrior -1)
  9. Virabhadrasana -2(warrior-2)

Advanced Level

  1. Padangusthasana( holding the big toes)
  2. Ardha Chandrasana (half moon pose)
  3. Parivrtta ardha Chandrasana (revolved half moon pose)
  4. Parivrtta Baddha Parsvakonasana (revolved bound side angle)
  5. Urdhva Prasarita Ekapadasana(upward split one leg)
  6. Virabhadrasana -3(warrior-3)
  7. Ardha Baddha Padmottanasana (half bound lotus intense stretch)
  8. Natarajasana(Lord of the dance Pose)
  9. Prasarita Padottanasana(legs widespread intense stretch)
  10. Utthita Hasta Padangusthasana(intense arms hold big toe)
  11. Malasana (garland pose) 

Beginners Level

  1. Vajrasana (diamond pose)
  2. Balasana(Child’s Pose) or Shashankasana ( moon or hare pose)
  3. Madukasana(Frog Pose) or Bhadrasana (gracious pose)
  4. Marjaryasana(Cat Pose)
  5. Vyaghrasana(Tiger Pose)

Intermediate Level

  1. Virasana (hero pose)
  2. Ustrasana(camel pose)

Advanced Level

  1. Parighasana (gate pose)
  2. Supta Virasana (recline hero pose)

Beginners Level

  1. Sukhasana(Easy pose)
  2. Dandasana (Staff Pose)
  3. Swastik Asana(auspicious pose)
  4. Siddhasana(adept pose)
  5. Padmasana(lotus pose)

Intermediate Level

  1. Janu Sirsasana (Head to Knee Pose)
  2. Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana(revolved knee to head pose)
  3. Paschimottanasana(ugrasana or brahmacharyasana)
  4. Purvauttansana(east intense stretch pose)
  5. Gomukhasana(cow face resembling)
  6. Marichyasana(name of the sage mariachi)
  7. Ardha Navasana (half boat)
  8. Upavistha Konasana(wide angle seated forward bend pose)
  9. Baddha Konasana(bounded angle pose)
  10. Ardha Matsyendrasana (half spinal twist)
  11. Yogamudrasana(yoga gesture or psychic union pose)
  12. Simhasana(lion gesture)
  13. Parvatasana(mountain pose)

Advanced Level

  1. Ardha Padma Paschimottanasana(half lotus west intense stretch pose)
  2. Ardha Baddha Padma Paschimottanasana(half bounded lotus west intense stretch pose)
  3. Bharadvajasana(Bharadvaja was the father of drona)
  4. Paripurna Navasana (complete boat pose)
  5. Ubhaya Padangustasana(ubhaya – both, padangusta – big toe)
  6. Merudandasana (spinal column pose)
  7. Goraksasana(cowherd)
  8. Simhasana – 2(lion pose)
  9. Trianga Mukhaikapda Paschimottanasana(three limbs facing intense west stretch pose)
  10. Hanumanasana(front full split or hindu monkey god)
  11. Krounchasana(heron pose)
  12. Urdhva Padmasana(Upward Lotus Pose) or Lolasana (swinging pose)
  13. Akarna Dhanurasana(heel touches the ear as an archer pulls the bowstring)
  14. Eka Pada Raja kapotasana(single leg king pigeon pose)
  15. Eka Pada Sirasana(one leg behind head pose)
  16. Kukkutasana(cockerel pose) 

Beginners Level

  1. Shavasana(corpse pose)
  2. Ananda Balasana (happy baby pose)
  3. Supta Pawanmuktasana (wind relieving pose)
  4. Setu Bandha Sarvangasana(bridge lock Sarvangasana)

Intermediate Level

  1. Jathara Parivartanasana(abdomen twisting pose)
  2. Salamba Sarvangasana(supported Sarvangasana)
  3. Matsyasana(fish pose)
  4. Supta Konasana(reclining angle pose)
  5. Urdhva Cakrasana(upward wheel pose)

Advanced Level

  1. Anantasana(Vishnu couch pose)
  2. Eka Pada Setu Bandha Sarvangasana (single leg bridge pose)
  3. Niralamba Sarvangasana (without support Sarvangasana)
  4. Supta Padangusthasana(supine holding big toe)
  5. Halasana(Plough Pose)
  6. Karnapidasana(ear pressure pose)
  7. Dwi Pada Viparita Dandasana(both feet reverse stick pose)
  8. Eka Pada Urdhva Dhanurasana(single leg upward bow pose)
  9. Pindasana in Sarvangasana(embryo or fetus pose)
  10. Urdhva Padmasana in Sarvangasana (upward lotus pose in sarvangasana) 
  1. Makarasana (crocodile pose)
  2. Ardha Shalabhasana(half locust pose)
  3. Salabhasana (locust Pose)
  4. Sarpasana(snake pose)
  5. Bhujangasana(serpent pose)
  6. Ardha Dhanurasana (half bow)

Intermediate Level

  1. Dhanurasana(bow pose)
  2. Urdhva Mukha Svanasana(upward facing dog pose)

Advanced Level

  1. Parsva Dhanurasana(sideways bow pose)
  2. Bhekasana(toad or frog pose)

Intermediate Level

  1. Phalakasana(plank pose) or Santolanasana (balancing pose)
  2. Chaturanga Dandasana(four limbed staff pose)
  3. Tolasana(scale pose)
  4. Purvottanasana(east intense stretch)

Advanced Level

  1. Bakasana(crane)
  2. Mayurasana (mayura means a peacock)
  3. Padma Mayurasana(lotus peacock pose)
  4. Astavakrasana
  5. Bhujapidasana
  6. Eka Pada Bakasana
  7. Eka Pada Galavasana
  8. Eka pada Koundinyanasana(Single Leg Sage Koundinyan Pose)
  9. Vasisthasana
  10. Kukkutasana(lifted cockerel pose)
  11. Pincha Mayurasana
  12. Salamba Sirsasana
  13. Salamba Sirsasana

6.1. Introduction

6.2. What is Prana?

6.3. Universal prana

6.4. Play of prana and chitta

6.5. Individual  prana

6.6. Receiving prana

6.7. Experience of cosmic prana

6.8. Four aspects of pranayama

6.9. The Pranic body

6.10. Breath, health and pranayama

6.11. Breathing and life span

6.12. General notes for the practitioner

6.13. Guidelines for Pranayama

  1. Diet
  2. Place
  3. Cleanliness
  4. Sequence
  5. The seat
  6. Posture
  7. Starting nostril
  8. The nose
  9. Flaring the nostrils
  10. Breathing
  11. Ratio of inhalation, retention and exhalation
  12. Bandhas
  13. Time unit
  14. Fatigue
  15. Illness
  16. Pregnancy
  17. Possible side effects
  18. Regularity
  19. Advice for pranayama Sadhana
  20. Special diets

6.14. Importance of Kumbhaka

  1. Classification of pranayama
  2. What is kumbhaka?

iii. Physiology of kumbhaka

  1. Kevala kumbhaka
  2. Kumbhaka and Samadhi
  3. Thereby the covering of light disappears.

vii. Kumbhaka and kundalini

6.15. Natural breathing

6.16. Abdominal Breathing

6.17. Abdominal (or diaphragmatic) breathing

6.18. Thoracic Breathing

6.19. Thoracic breathing

6.20. Clavicular Breathing

6.21. Clavicular breathing

6.22. Full Yogic Breathing

6.23. Yogic breathing

6.24. Kapalabhati Pranayama (frontal brain cleansing breath)

Technique 2: Alternate nostrils

6.25. Bhastrika Pranayama (bellows breath)

Technique 2: Alternate nostrils

6.26. Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (psychic network purification)

  1. 27. Ujjayi Pranayama (the psychic breath)
  2. 28. Chandra Bhedana Pranayama (calming energy)

6.29. Surya Bhedana Pranayama (stimulating vitality)

6.30. Sheetali Pranayama(cooling pranayama)

6.31. Sheetkari Pranayama (hissing breath)

6.32. Bhramari Pranayama (humming bee breath) 

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Mudras and Prana

7.3. Mudras and the Elements

7.4. The Five Basic Finger Positions

7.5. Full yogic breathing Mudra

  1. Chin Mudra while chanting ‘AAAA’
  2. Chinmaya Mudra while chanting ‘OU’
  3. Adi Mudra while chanting ‘MMMM’
  4. Brahma Mudra while chanting ‘AUM’

7.6. Mudras

Mudras and Chakras

  1. Mooladhara Mudra (Root Chakra Gesture)
  2. Swadhisthana Mudra (Sacral Chakra Gesture)
  3. Manipura Mudra (Solar Plexus Chakra Gesture)
  4. Anahata Mudra (Heart Chakra  Gesture)
  5. Hridaya Mudra (Compassionate Heart Gesture)
  6. Vishuddha Mudra (Throat Chakra Gesture)
  7. Ajna Mudra (Brow Chakra Gesture)
  8. Vayu Mudra (Air Gesture)

9.Vyana Mudra (Expansive Prana Gesture)

  1. Pranapana Mudra (Taking In and Throwing Out Gesture)
  2. Udana Mudra (Upward Flying Energy Gesture)
  3. Prana Mudra (Life Force Gesture)
  4. Apana Mudra (Cleansing Energy Gesture)
  5. Agni Mudra (Fire Gesture)
  6. Linga Mudra (Mark of Siva)
  7. Surya Mudra (Sun Seal)
  8. Bhramara Mudra(Humming Bee Gesture)
  9. Pushan Mudra (Giver of Good Health)
  10. Kamajayi Mudra (Victory over Excessive Desires Gesture)
  11. Shankha Mudra (Conch Shell Gesture)
  12. Shunya Mudra(Silence of the Void Gesture)
  13. Garuda Mudra (Eagle Gesture)
  14. Kshepana Mudra (Letting Go Gesture)
  15. Akasha Mudra (Touching the Void Gesture)
  16. Shunya Mudra (Silence of the Void Gesture)
  17. Bhu Mudra (Touching the Earth Gesture)
  18. Kaleshwara Mudra (Lord of Time Gesture)
  19. Prithivi Mudra (Earth Gesture)
  20. Sukham Mudra (Stress Relief Gesture)
  21. Vishnu Mudra (Universal Balance Gesture)
  22. Varuna Mudra (Water-Balancing Gesture)
  23. Jalodar Nashak Mudra (Water Reducing Gesture)
  24. Mahatrika Mudra (Great Triangle Gesture)
  25. Shakti Mudra (Essence of Power Gesture)
  26. Ganesha Mudra (Remover of Obstacles)
  27. Namaskar Mudra (My Essence Meets Your Essence Gesture)
  28. Mandala Mudra (Circle Universe Gesture)
  29. Bandha (lock mudras)

xxi. Maha Mudra (great psychic attitude)

xxii. Maha Bheda Mudra (the great separating attitude)

xxiii. Maha Vedha Mudra (the great piercing attitude)

  1. Adhara (perineal mudras)

xxiv. Ashwini Mudra (horse gesture) 

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Granthis

  1. Brahma Granthi
  2. Vishnu Granthi
  3. Rudra Granthi

8.3. Bandha (lock)

  1. Jalandhara Bandha (throat lock)
  2. Moola Bandha (perineum contraction)

iii. Uddiyana Bandha (abdominal contraction)

  1. Maha Bandha (the great lock) 

9.1. Jyothi Trataka (concentrated gazing) 

10.1. What is Meditation?

10.2. Passive and active meditation

10.3. General Instructions and Suggestions

  1. Calming the Mind
  2. Regularity and dedication

iii. Suitable place of practice

  1. Time
  2. Overcoming sleepiness
  3. Relaxation

vii. General obstacles

viii. Direction

  1. Thought
  2. Object of concentration

10.4. Vipassana Meditation

  1. Introduction
  2. Historical Background

iii. The Practice

10.5. Vippasana Meditation

10.5.1. Part 1: Observation of the natural breath

10.5.2. Part 2: Observation of the sensations

10.5.3. Observe without reacting and keep the equanimity

10.6. OM – Meditation 

11.1. Introduction to Shatkarma

11.2. The six shatkarmas are as follows.

  1. Neti
  2. Dhauti

iii. Nauli

  1. Basti
  2. Kapalbhati
  3. Trataka

11.3. Shat-Karma – salt water

  1. Why lukewarm saline Water?
  2. Risks
  3. What are positive and negative ions?
  4. What does a negative ion do to your body?
  5. What does a positive ion do to humans?

11.4. Jala Neti (nasal cleansing with water)

11.5. Sutra Neti (nasal cleansing with thread)     

11.5.1. Mechanism of jal neti

  1. How jala neti works on upper respiratory tract?
  2. How jala neti directly affects nervous system?

11.6. Vaman Dhauti (regurgitative cleansing)

Technique 2: Gaja Karma Kriya (elephant action)

11.6.1. Physiological Action During Vaman

  1. How does vaman dhauti eradicate indigestion, gastritis, and hyperacidity?
  2. How does vaman dhauti control weight?
  3. How does it alleviates loss of appetites ?
  4. How does vaman dhauti control asthma ?
  5. How does it control stress and sleep apnea?

11.6.2. Mechanism of Agnisara

  1. How agnisar works for digestive system ?
  2. How does it cures gynaecological system ?

11.7. Shankhaprakshalana (cleansing of the entire digestive tract)

11.7.1. Shankha Prakshalana Exercise

  1. Why tadasana first?
  2. Tiryaktadasna

iii. Katichakrasana

  1. Tiryakbhujangasana
  2. Udarakarshan

11.7.2. Rest

11.7.3. Special meal

11.7.4. Climate

11.7.5. Frequency

11.7.6. Duration

11.7.7. Precautions

11.7.8. Food Restrictions

11.7.9. Warning

11.7.13. Shankha Prakshalana Physiology

  1. How does shankha prakshalana encourages good bowel movement?
  2. How does Shankha Prakshalana reduces bile pool and cholesterol?

iii. How does Shankha Prakshalana increase hemoglobin?

  1. How does Shankha Prakshalana control stress? 

Part – 2 Vinyasa Yoga

1. Introduction

1.1. Definition of Vinyasa

1.2. What is Vinyasa Krama yoga?

  1. The Parameters of Vinyasa Yoga

2.1. Steadiness (sthira)

2.2. Comfort (sukha)

2.3. Smooth and Long Breathing

2.4. Breath Rate In Vinyasa Practice

2.5. Focusing the Mind on the Breath (Ananta Samapatti)

  1. Benefits of Vinyasa — In Yoga and Life
  2. Categorizing Vinyasa (Hard and Soft)

4.1. How to Use Vinyasa

4.2. Moving with Energy

4.3. Speed or Pace of Vinyasa

4.4. Moving Meditation – The Ultimate Vinyasa Flow

4.5. Becoming one … Yoga as Energy

  1. Levels of Intensity / Balancing The Four Variables

5.1. Choice of Yoga Postures

5.2. Yoga Posture Variations

5.3. Length of Asana Holds

5.4. Choice of Vinyasa

  1. Three Internal Tools / For Successful Practice

6.1. Develop Mind Flow

6.2. Drishti: Focus on the Internal Gaze

6.3. Bandhas: Gateways of Internal Power

  1. The Three Bandhas

7.1. Moola Bandha:

7.2. Uddiyana Bandha:

7.3. Jalandhara Bandha:

  1. Being Mindful of the Moment
  2. Three distinct qualities of yoga breathing:

9.1. The complete breath

9.2. Slow deep breathing

9.3. Sound breathing

  1. Vinyasa Sequence Practice
  2. Back bending
  3. Arm balance
  • Hip opening
  1. Core
  2. Twisting


Paper 1. Training, Practice and Techniques

Part 3. Yoga Therapy for Common Ailments

Chapter – 1  Asthma

2.13. What is Asthma?

2.14. What is Nasal Allergy?

2.15. What triggers asthma attack?

  1. Allergies
  2. Infection

iii. Physical exertion

  1. Climate and Pollution
  2. Occupational asthma
  3. Psychological Factors

vii. Emotions and Stress

2.1.6. Stress & Asthma

2.17. How does stress lead to asthmatic attack?

2.18. Yogic Management

  1. Psychological level
  2. Vital energy (Prana) level.
  3. Body level

2.19. Can yoga correct this chemical imbalance?

2.20. Yoga Practices for Asthma

13.1.1. Asthma – Special Breathing Technique

Chapter – 2 Hypertension

1.1. Stress & Hypertension

1.1.1. What does the Blood Pressure depend upon?

1.1.2. How does stress increase blood pressure?

2.1. Coronary Heart Disease

2.1.1. What is Coronary Heart disease?

2.2.2. What are the effects due to Coronary Heart Disease?

2.2.3. What are the consequences of coronary blockage?

2.2.4. How does this narrowing of arteries occur?

2.2.5. How does this hardening of arteries take place?

2.8. What is low blood pressure?

2.9. Yogic Management

  1. Physical body level
  2. Energy level
  3. Mind level

2.10. Yoga Practices for Cardiovascular System

Chapter – 3 Anxiety & Depression

  1. Introduction

1.2. Anxiety

  1. Anticipatory Anxiety
  2. Panic or Intense Anxiety

1.3. Depression

1.4. Yogic Definition of Anxiety and Depression

1.5. Yogic Management of Psychological Disorders

1.5.1. Physical level

1.5.2. Energy level

1.5.3. Mind level

1.5.4. Intellectual level

1.5.5. Bliss level

1.5.6. Yoga practices for Anxiety & Depression

Chapter – 4  Arthritis

  1. What is Osteo-arthritis?

1.1. What causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1.2. Stress & Arthritis What causes Arthritis?

1.3. What is autoimmunity?

1.4. Is Osteo Arthritis related to Stress?

1.5. Psyche, central nervous system and immune system

1.6. Yogic Management of Arthritis

  1. Physical body level
  2. Prana level
  3. Mind level

1.7. Yoga Practices for Arthritis

Chapter – 5 Spine disorders

  1. Slipped discs
  2. Disc problems in the Neck

iii. What is Whiplash injury?

  1. Nerve problems
  2. Sciatica
  3. Spondylosis

vii. What is Cervical Spondylosis?

viii. Coccydynia

  1. Ankylosing Spondylitis (Bamboo Spine disease)
  2. Non-specific Back pain (functional causes)

1.1. Stress & Back Pain

  1. Muscles are weaker than our ancestors.
  2. Wrong muscles are overworked.
  3. Psychological stress

1.2. Yogic Management

1.3. Yoga Practices for Chronic Low Back Pain

Chapter – 6 Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Types of diabetes mellitus
  2. Causes and Symptoms Causes

2.1. Heredity

2.2. Overweight

2.3. Age

2.4. Stress

2.5. What is autoimmunity?

2.6. Symptoms

2.7. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

2.8. Complications

2.9. How do Kriyas help in Diabetes Mellitus?

2.10. How does Uddiyana, Agnisara & Nauli help?

2.11. How does Sankhapraksalana Kriya help?

2.12. Yoga Practices for Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter – 7 Yoga for Gastro-Intestinal Disorder

  1. Yoga for Gastro-Intestinal Disorder

 1.2. Definition

1.3. Various types what is peptic ulcer?

1.4. Protectors & Aggressor

1.5. What happens to stomach lining in Acid Peptic Disease?

1.6. What is irritable bowel syndrome?

1.7. What is ulcerative colitis?

1.8. What is Piles?

1.9. Stress & Gastro Intestinal Disorders

1.10. Mechanism of psychosomatic ailments?

1.11. Yoga for GID

1.12. Kriyas

1.13. How does dhouti kriya help in APD?

1.14. Oesophagus during Vamanadhouti?

1.15. How does Uddiyana, Agnisara & Nauli help?

1.15.1. As the intra-abdominal pressure falls two things happen

1.16. How does Sankha-Praksalana Kriya help?

1.17. Yoga Practices for ACID Peptic Diseases

1.18. Yoga Practices for IBS & Ulcerative Colitis

1.19. Yoga Practices for Chronic Constipation


Paper 1. Training, Practice and Techniques

Part 4 – Yin Yoga

Chapter – 1

  1. Introduction

1.1. What is Yin Yoga?

1.2. What is Yang Yoga?

1.3. Yin & Yang Tissues

1.4. Yin & Yang Yoga

Chapter – 2

  1. History of Yin Yoga

1.1. Yin and Yang

1.2. Daoism or sushumna nadi

1.3. Yin Contains Yang

1.4. Yin Becomes Yang

1.5. Yin Controls Yang

  1. Daoist Yoga

2.1. The Dao is the balance between the two.

  1. The Three Tattvas of Yin Yoga Practice

3.1. Playing Our Edges

3.2. We don’t use our body to get into a pose,

3.3. Resolving To Be Still

3.4. Stillness of the Body

3.5. Stillness of the Breath

3.6. Stillness of the Mind

3.7. Holding for Time

3.8. How Deep?

3.9. How Long?

3.10. How Often?

Chapter – 3

  1. Yin and Yang Compared
  2. Physiology

Chapter – 4

  1. Differences between Yin and Restorative Yoga Props

1.1. Poses

1.2. Stretch

Chapter – 5

  1. Elasticity and plasticity

1.1. Elasticity: Fascial Conditioning

1.2. Plasticity: Fascial Stretching

1.3. Plastic Versus Elastic

1.4. Fascial Growth and Yoga

Chapter – 6

  1. Tension and Compression

1.1. Tension

1.2. Compression

1.3. When the restriction is tension:

1.4. When the restriction is compression:

1.5. Why it is important to know when you hit compression.

1.6. How to recognize whether the restriction you feel in your body is because of tension or compression?

1.7. The humerus and acromion process

Chapter – 7

  1. Yin Yoga Contraindications

Chapter – 8

  1. General Guidelines

Chapter – 9

  1. Structure of Yin Yoga Class

9.1. Intention and Attention

9.2. Beginning the Practice

9.3. Intention

9.4. Invocation

9.5. Opening Meditation

9.6. Flowing

9.7. Beginning Asanas

9.8. The Ocean Breath

9.9. Linking Asanas

9.10. Finishing Asanas

9.11. Ending the Practice

9.12. Shavasana

9.13. Closing Meditation

9.14. Transition to Your Next Activity

Chapter – 10

  1. Benefits of Yin Yoga

Chapter – 11

  1. Benefits of yin yoga

1.1. Yin Yoga and the Joints

  1. Prevent Contracture
  2. Prevent Degeneration
  3. Reduce Fixation
  4. Provide Hydration

Chapter – 12

  1. Tissues in the human body

1.1. Connective Tissues

1.2. Ligaments and Tendons

1.3. Yin Yoga & Joints

1.4. The Spine

1.5. Spinal Movement

Chapter – 13

  1. Tissues and Their Flexibility
  2. Limits of Flexibility

Chapter – 14

  1. When to Practice Yin Yoga

Chapter – 16

  1. Types of Joints

Chapter – 16

  1. Synovial Joints

1.1. The Joint Capsule

Chapter – 17

  1. Bones and Cartilage

Chapter – 18

  1. Muscle Tissue

1.2. The Make-up of Muscles

Chapter – 19

  1. Collagen

Chapter – 20

  1. Collagen in the Bones

1.1. Directional stress on connective tissues

Chapter – 21

  1. Fascia

Chapter – 22

  1. Connective Tissues (CT)
  • Bone
  • Blood
  • Cartilage

Chapter – 23

  1. Tendons and Ligaments

1.1. Ligaments

Chapter – 24

  1. Muscle Tissue is Yang, Connective Tissue is Yin

1.1. Yang Yoga Focuses on Muscle

1.2. Yin Yoga Focuses on Connective Tissue

1.3. Yin and Yang Supplement Each Other

1.4. Three Layers of a Joint

1.5. Breathing

1.6. Exercise in Awareness

1.7. Learning to Relax

1.8. Learning to be Still

Chapter – 25

  1. The Asanas

This selection will suffice to work all the areas of the body normally targeted in a Yin Yoga practice:

  1. Anahatasana (aka Melting Heart)
  2. Ankle Stretch
  3. Bananasana
  4. Butterfly
  5. Half Butterfly
  6. Camel
  7. Cat pulling Its Tail
  8. Caterpillar
  9. Child’s Pose
  10. Dangling
  11. Deer
  12. Dragons
  13. Frog
  14. Happy Baby
  15. Reclining Twist
  16. Saddle
  17. Shavasana
  18. Shoelace
  19. Snail
  20. Sphinx and seal
  21. Square
  22. Squat
  23. Straddle (aka Dragonfly)
  24. Swan & Sleeping Swan
  25. Toe Squat
  26. Yin Postures for the Upper Body




Part – 5 Techniques

  1. Five Basic Steps in Giving Hands-On Cues and Assistance

10.1. Five Basic Steps in Giving Hands-On Cues and Assistance

Step 1 : Stabilizing and Easing

Step 2: Elongating the Spine

Step 3: Rotating, Flexing, and Extending the Spine

Step 4: Refining the Asana

Step 5: Deepening the Asana

  1. Common Yoga Injuries and How to Avoid Them

14.1. Overstretching: A true pain in the asana

14.2. Most common yoga injuries and fixes

  1. Preparing for yoga class
  2. Maintain a Regular Yoga Practice
  3. Have a Class Plan

iii. Be Prepared! Get Good Training

  1. Smile While You Are Teaching
  2. Create Great Themes for Your Classes
  3. Plan Your Classes

vii. Arrive Early

viii. Play Music

  1. Dress to Impress
  2. Find your own style
  3. Know your limits 
  1. Introduction

1.1. Trend of Teaching

1.2. Methodology

1.3. Need of Yoga Teaching Method

1.4. Importance of Teaching Method

  1. Adaptability practices for all levels Class Levels

2.1. Beginners

2.2. Intermediate

2.3. Advanced

  1. Group Dynamics in yoga and role of yoga teacher

6.1 Querying new students

6.2 Class Levels and Prerequisites

6.3 Group Dynamics

6.4 Group dynamic Yoga

6.5 Which style of yoga is best for group dynamics?

  1. Contraindications: Movement in Yoga
  2. Introduction to Contraindications

8.1. New To Yoga

8.2. Steadiness and Ease

8.3. Group New Students

8.4. Working with Injuries in Yoga

8.4.1. Origin, Nature, and Manifestations of Injuries

8.5. Safe Movement in Yoga

8.6. Managing With Injuries

8.6.1. Ankle Sprains

8.6.2. Knee Strains and Repairs

8.6.3. Hamstring Strains

8.6.4. Lower Back Pain

8.6.5. Working with Depression

  1. Asanas Contraindications
  2. Introduction

8.1. Standing & Balancing Poses

8.1.1. Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.1.2. Sequencing

8.2. Twists & Lateral Bending

8.2.1.  Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.3. Forward Folds

8.3.1. Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.3.2. Sequencing

8.4. Back bends

8.4.1. Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.5. Sequencing Inversions

8.5.1. Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.6. Seated Postures

8.6.1. Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.7. Relaxation

            8.7.1.  Potential Contraindications & Variations

8.7.2.  Sequencing

8.8. Contraindications for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  1. Essential Qualities of a Yoga Teacher

9.1. Passion for their own yoga practice

9.2. Deep knowledge of yoga

9.3. The ability to hold space

9.4. Excellent communication

9.5 Inspiration

9.6 Compassion

9.7 Be Authentic

9.8 Humility

9.9 Be Compassionate & Show Concern For Students

9.10. Have A Consistent Practice

9.11 Non Attachment

9.12 Clear instruction

9.13.  Appropriate adjustments

9.14.  Awareness of alignment

9.15 Modifications for all levels

9.16 Safety first

9.18. Knowledge

9.19. Respect

9.20. Professionalism

9.21. Love For Yoga

9.22. Love For Teaching Yoga

9.23. Personality

9.24. Ability to Connect

9.25. Ability to Communicate

9.26. Preparation

9.27.  Adaptability

9.28. Respectful physical contact 

1.1. Introduction

1.1.1. Need Anatomy and Physiology in Yoga

1.1.2. Anatomy

1.2. Physiology is the study of the functions of the body at the cellular level

1.2.1. Anatomy

1.2.2. Physiology

1.3. Yoga lessons from a Cell

1.3.1. A cell consists of three parts

1.3.2. Cell

1.3.3. Cell Definition

1.3.4. Characteristics of Cells

1.3.5. Types of Cells

1.3.6. Prokaryotic Cells

1.3.7. Eukaryotic Cells

1.3.8. Cell Organelle and its Functions

1.3.9. Life span of Cell

1.4. Stress and Cell

1.5. Yogic perspective

1.6. Transition from cell level to organism

1.7. Tissues

  1. Epithelial Tissue
  2. Connective Tissue

iii. Muscular Tissue

  1. Nervous Tissue

1.7.1. Organs

1.7.2. System

1.8. Types and various systems in the human body.

1.8.1. Different Systems of the Body

  1. i) The Locomotor System.
  2. ii) The Blood-Vascular System

iii) The Digestive System

  1. iv) The Respiratory System
  2. v) The Ductless Glands

vi)The Urogenital System

vii)The Nervous System

viii)The Special Sense organs

  1. ix) The Excretory System

1.9. Anatomical Terminology

1.9.1. Directional terms

1.5. Planes of the body

1.9.2. Movement Definitions

The six basic movements of the body place in three planes.

  1. i) Coronal plane
  2. ii) Sagittal plane

iii) Transverse plane

1.9.3. Pose with movements

1.9.4. Body Cavities

  1. i) Thoracic cavity
  2. ii) Abdominal and pelvic cavity

iii) Dorsal cavity

  1. Muscular System and Yoga

3.1. Characteristics of Skeletal Muscles

3.1.1. Functions of Muscles:

3.1.2. Muscular tissues can be classified into:

  1. i) Skeletal Muscles

i)Skeletal Muscle Structure

  1. ii) Smooth muscle

iii) Cardiac muscle

 3.2. Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles

  1. i) Head and Neck Muscles
  2. ii) Neck Muscles

iii) Trunk Muscles

  1. a) Anterior Muscles
  2. b) Posterior Muscles
  3. iv) Muscles of the Upper Limb
  4. v) Muscles of the Humerus that Act on the Forearm
  5. vi) Muscles of the Lower Limb

vii) Muscles Causing Movement at the Hip Joint

viii) Muscles Causing Movement at the Knee Joint

  1. ix) Muscles Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot

3.3. Benefits of Yogic Practices on the Muscular System

3.3.1. Yoga Practice Cultivates Greater Flexibility and Range of Motion

3.4. Common Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System

  1. i) Heat Production
  2. ii) Production of Energy for Muscle

iii) Oxygen Debt

  1. iv) Muscle Fatigue
  2. v) Muscle Strains and Sprains
  3. Skeletal System and Yoga

4.1. Introduction

4.1.1. Skeleton 

4.1.2. Skeletal muscle 

4.1.3. Joint

  1. i) Cartilage
  2. ii) Tendon

iii) Ligament


v)Bursa (pl. bursae)

4.2. Types of bone and cartilage

4.3. Parts of Bones

  1. 4. Bone structure and formation:
  2. Compact bone (Cortical Bone)
  3. Cancellous bone (Spongy Bone)

4.5. Bone Development

  1. Intramembranous ossification
  2. Endochondral ossification

4.5.1. Bone Growth:

4.6. Functions of the Skeletal System?

  1. i) Articulations
  2. ii) Support and Protection

iii) Movement

  1. iv) Hematopoiesis
  2. v) Storage
  3. vi) Growth and Development

4.7. The main bones of the human skeleton are:

4.7.1. Skeletal System Anatomy

4.7.2. Skull

4.7.3. Hyoid and Auditory Ossicles

4.7.4. Vertebrae

4.7.5. Ribs and Sternum

4.7.6. The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones in the folowing regions:

4.7.7. Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

4.7.8. Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

4.8. Classification of Bones according to shape:

  1. Long bones
  2. Short bones
  3. Flat bones
  4. Irregular bones
  5. Sesamoid bones
  6. 9. Skeleton Joints:
  7. i) Fibrous joints
  8. ii) Cartilaginous joints

iii) Synovial joint

  1. 10. Synovial joints or (Diarthroses)

4.11. Synovial joints classifications

  1. i) Planar Joints
  2. ii) Hinge Joints

iii) Pivot joints

  1. iv) Condyloid Joints
  2. v) Saddle Joints
  3. vi) Ball-and-Socket Joints

vii) Gliding Joint

4.12. Benefits of Yogic Practices on Skeletal System

4.12.1. Yogic perspective

4.12.2. Yogic Perspective

  1. Asana and Kinesiology
  2. Kinesiology and Muscular System
  3. Flexing the Trunk
  4. Extending the Trunk
  5. Lateral Flexion of the Trunk
  6. Tilting the Pelvis Back and Down (Retroversion)
  7. Tilting the Pelvis Forward (Anteversion)
  8. Flexing the Hip
  9. Extending the Hip
  10. Drawing the Thigh toward the Midline (Adduction)
  11. Drawing the Thigh Away from the Midline (Abduction)
  12. Turning the Thigh Outward (External Rotation)
  13. Turning the Thigh Inward (Internal Rotation)

3 (right leg). Straightening the Leg (Extension)

Bending the Leg (Flexion)

  1. Drawing the Shoulders Away from the Neck (Depressing the Scapula)
  2. The muscles on the back that depress the scapula include
  3. Lifting or Elevating the Shoulder Girdle
  4. Rotating the Shoulder Blade Upward
  5. Moving the Shoulder Blades Away from the Midline (Protraction or Abduction)
  6. Drawing the Shoulder Blades toward the Midline of the Back (Retraction)
  7. Raising the Arms above the Head (Flexion)
  8. Moving the Arms Backward (Extension)
  9. Moving the Arm from the Midline (Abduction)
  10. Moving the Arms toward the Midline of the Body (Adduction)
  11. Turning the Arm Outward (External Rotation)
  12. Turning the Arm Inward (Internal Rotation)
  13. Bending (Flexing) the Elbow
  14. Straightening (Extending)
  15. Turning the Palm to Face Downward (Pronating the Forearm)
  16. Turning the Palm Upward (Supinating the Forearm)
  17. Pressing the Sole of the Foot Downward (Plantar Flexion)
  18. Drawing the Foot towards the Shin (Dorsiflexion)
  19. Tilting the Foot Inward (Inversion)
  20. Tilting the Foot Outward (Eversion)
  21. Biomechanics of Asana Stretching
  22. Biomechanics of Stretching

1.2. Joint Mobility and Stability – The Biomechanical Yin Yang

1.3. What is Stretching?

1.4. Moving Origins and Insertions

1.5. Physiology of Stretching

1.6. The Spinal Cord Reflexes

1.7. Methods of Stretching Muscles

1) Ballistic stretching

2) Passive stretching

3) Facilitated stretching

1.8. Stretching and Endorphins

1.9. The Muscle Spindle Stretch Receptor

1.10. The muscle spindle in Uttanasana

1.11. Reciprocal Inhibition

1.12. The Biomechanical Yin Yang

1.13. Reciprocal Inhibition – A Physiological Yin Yang

1.14. Golgi Tendon Organ

1.15. Hints and cautions:

1.16. The Golgi Tendon Organ and Facilitated Stretching

1.17. Combining Biomechanics and Physiology in Stretching

1.18. Muscles

  1. Origin
  2. Insertion
  3. Agonist or prime mover
  4. Antagonist
  5. Synergist 
  1. Introduction

1.1. What is yoga?

1.2. The relevance of yoga today

1.3. Significance of yoga in modern life

1.4. Desire for happiness

1.5. Meaning

1.6. Definition of Yoga

1.7. History of Yoga

  1. Pre-Vedic/Tantric Period (5000BC – 1500BC)
  2. Vedic Period (1500BC – 500BC)

iii. Post-Vedic Period (500BC – 500AD)

  1. Classical Yoga
  2. Post-Classical Yoga
  3. Renaissance Period (500AD – 1000AD)

vii. Medieval Period (1000AD – 1757AD)

viii. Colonial Period (1757AD – 1947AD)  

  1. Modern Period (1947AD – Now)
  2. Our School’s Unique Lineage
  3. Introduction to School’s Lineage-(Guru–Shishya Tradition)
  4. Shad-Darshan (Six Schools of Indian Philosophy)

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Primary purpose of the Darsanas

3.3. Common Factors

3.4. Nyaya Darsana – by Sage Gautama

3.4.1.  Definition

3.4.2.  The Sixteen topics

3.4.3.  The Nyaya theory of knowledge

3.4.4.  Isvara or God

3.4.5.  Jivas or Individual Souls

3.5. Vaishesika Darsana – by Sage Kanad

3.5.1. Definition

3.5.2. The seven Padarthas(an object of knowledge)

3.5.3. God and the World

3.6. Sankhya Darsana – by Sage Kapila

3.6.1. Definition

3.6.2. The Pramanas or metods of Knowledge

3.6.3. The Prameyas or the Objects to be Known(knowing true self)

3.6.4. Bondage and Liberation

3.7. Yoga Darsana- by Sage Patanjali

3.8. Poorv Mimamsa Darsana- by Sage Jaimini

3.8.1. Definition

3.8.2. Theory of Knowledge

3.8.3. Metaphysics

3.9. Uttar Mimansa (Vedanta) Darsana – by Sage Ved Vyasa

3.9.1. Definition

  1. Patanjali Yoga Sutra

15.1. Introduction to Patanjali Yoga Sutra

15.2. The basis and date of the Yoga Sutras

15.3. Commentators

15.4. Selected sutra from Samadhi and Sadhana pada

  1. Upanishads

17.1. Introduction to the Upanishads

17.2. The meaning of the word Upanishad

17.3. Knowledge and ignorance

17.4. The main teachings of the Upanishads

  1. Brahman
  2. Atman

iii. Prakriti

  1. Creation
  2. Devas
  3. Organs

vii. Sacrifice

viii. Aum

  1. Death
  2. Yoga
  3. Rebirth

xii. Karma

xiii. Liberation

xiv. Mahavakyas

  1. Conclusion

17.5. The 11 main Upanishads

  1. Isa Upanishad (Isavasya Upanishad)
  2. Kena Upanishad 

Part -1

  1. Name of Pose in Sanskrit
  2. Name of Pose in English
  3. Benefits
  4. Contraindications

Part – 2

  1. Sthiti (initial)
  2. Transition In with breathing and awareness
  3. Final Pose reflection and refinement
  4. Stability
  5. Comfortability
  • Alignment
  1. Active muscles and relaxed mind, with soft breathing)
  2. Transition Out with breathing and awareness
  3. Sithila (relaxation)

Part – 3

  1. Counter Pose
  2. Modifications
  • Alignment cues

 Part – 4 (Trainee should observe following elements in classes, under the guidance of lead trainer)

Multi-Style Yoga

  1. Hatha Yoga
  2. Vinyasa Yoga
  3. Gentle Yoga
  4. Yin Yoga




1. Individual and Group Observation Skill


2. Observation of Transition In


3. Observation of Transition Out


4. Final Pose: Observation Skill


5. Observation of Stability


6. Observation of Comfortability


7.0bservation of Alignment


8 .0bservation of Active muscles


9.0bservation of relaxed mind


10. 0bservation of Breathing


11. 0verall observation skill


1. Individual and Group Observation Skill


2. Observation of Transition In


3. Observation of Transition Out


4. Final Pose: Observation Skill



Part – 5 (Trainee should take following yoga classes, under the guidance of lead trainer)

Different hatha yoga class sequencing, with different theme. (1. Hatha Yoga, 2. Vinyasa Yoga, 3. Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, 4. Gentle     Yoga, 5. Yin Yoga, 6. Restorative Yoga), with different theme. The steps involved in, basics arc structure of class.

  1. Centering
  2. Prayer/ Chanting
  3. Pranayama
  4. Warm-Up
  5. Surya Namaskara
  6. For beginners: break 3-5 minutes either in Child’s pose Balasana, or Corpse pose Savasana, or standing Intermediate and advanced students can continue without break.
  7. Asana Practice
  8. Standing Asanas – starting from Tree Pose or Tadasana and then transitioning to another standing
  9. Kneeling Poses
  10. Sitting Poses – starting from Seated Tree Pose or Sitting Tadasana and then transitioning to other sitting
  11. Abdomen Poses
  12. Supine Poses
  13. Inverted Poses
  14. Savasana
  15. Closing Pranayama
  16. Ending Prayer



1. Language


2. Pronunciation


3. Space between words


4. Voice


5. Volume of voice


6. Teachers Energy Level


7. Teachers body language


8. Demonstration


9. Hands on adjustment


10. Alignment cue


11. Modification


12. Teachers concern with students



  1. Tutorials, Assignment and Examination



1. Language


2. Pronunciation


3. Space between words


4. Voice


5. Volume of voice


6. Teachers Energy Level


7. Teachers body language


8. Demonstration


9. Hands on adjustment


10. Alignment cue


11. Modification


12. Teachers concern with students



  1. Tutorials, Assignment and Examination
  2. i) Trainee will be required to engage in:
  3. Self-study,
  4. Group discussion,
  5. Self-practice,
  6. Oral presentation,
  7. Mock class and
  8. Submit daily & weekly assignments on the basis of the day’s lectures and discussions.

ii). There will be a practical and a theory exam on   daily / weekly basis to assess the students on their learning, practice and teaching during the Teacher Training Course.


  1. Project Writing

  Description: Related to Yoga, Minimum 60 pages, for 300 hours Teacher Training Certificate.

   Topics for Project Writing


❏ Pranayama

Pooraka or inhalation

Rechaka or exhalation

Antar kumbhaka or internal breath retention

Bahir kumbhaka or external breath retention.

Breath, health and pranayama

Breathing and life span

 General notes for the practitioner

Natural breathing

Abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing

Thoracic Breathing

 Clavicular Breathing

Full Yogic Breathing

Kapalbhati Pranayama (frontal brain cleansing breath)

 Bhastrika Pranayama (bellows breath)

4Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (psychic network purification

 Ujjayi Pranayama (the psychic breath)

Sheetali Pranayama(cooling   pranayama)

Sheetkari Pranayama (hissing breath)

Bhramari Pranayama (humming bee breath)

❏ Mudra


 Mudras and prana

A scientific look at mudras

Five Groups of Yoga Mudras

  1. i) Jnana Mudra (psychic gesture of knowledge)

ii)Chin Mudra (psychic gesture of consciousness)

iii)Bhairava Mudra (fierce or terrifying attitude)

iv)Hridaya Mudra (heart gesture)

v)Shambhavi Mudra (eyebrow centre gazing)

  1. vi) Nasikagra Drishti(gaze at tip of nose)

vii) Shanmukhi Mudra (closing the seven gates)

viii)Yoga Mudra (attitude of psychic union) 

❏ Bandhas

  1. Jalandhara Bandha
  2. Moola Bandha
  3. Uddiyana Bandha
  4. Maha Bandha 

❏ Yogic, Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology

  1. Introduction

1.1. Anatomy

1.2. Physiology

1.3. Anatomical Terminology

1.4. Directional terms

  1. i) Superior or cranial
  2. ii) Inferior or caudal

iii) Posterior or dorsal

  1. iv) Lateral
  2. v) Proximal
  3. vi) Distal

vii) Medial

viii) Anterior or ventral

  1. Respiratory system

2.1. Gaseous Exchange

2.2. Respiratory System

  1. Nasal Cavity
  2. Pharynx
  3. Larynx
  4. Trachea (wind pipe)
  5. Bronchi
  6. Bronchioles
  7. Alveoli (Air sacs)

2.3. Lungs

2.4. Pleura

2.5. Bronchi

  1. 6. Pulmonary Ventilation

2.7. Respiration mechanism

  1. a) Shallow breathing
  2. b) Deep Breathing
  3. c) Unconscious control of breathing
  4. d) Conscious control of breathing

2.8. Lung Volume 

  1. Muscular System

3.1. Muscular tissues can be classified into

  1. Smooth, non-striated or involuntary muscles
  2. Cardiac muscle or myocardium
  3. Skeletal, striated or voluntary muscles

3.2. Characteristics of skeletal muscles

  1. i) Contractility
  2. ii) Excitability

iii) Extensibility

  1. iv) Elasticity

3.3. Functions of Muscles

  1. Movement
  2. Maintaining posture

III. Producing Heat & Temperature Regulation

  1. Circulation
  2. Kinesiology

5.1. Biomechanics and Kinesiology

5.2. Body Movements

Body Movements and Their Descriptions

  1. Flexion
  2. Extension
  3. Abduction
  4. Adduction
  5. Pronation
  6. Lateral flexion
  7. Rotation
  8. Medial rotation (internal rotation)
  9. Lateral rotation (external rotation) 11.Elevation
  10. Depression
  11. Dorsiflexion
  12. Plantar flexion
  13. Eversion
  14. Inversion
  15. Protraction
  16. Retraction
  17. Circumduction

❏ Yoga Philosophy, Lifestyle & Ethics

  1. Introduction

1.1. Meaning

1.2. Definition of Yoga

1.3.History of Yoga

  1. Hatha Yoga Glimpse

2.2. Nadis

2.2.1. Ida, Pingala, Shushmna

2.2. Cakras
  1. Purusharthas(Four attainments of life)
  2. i) Dharma (Virtue)
  3. ii) Artha (Wealth)

iii) Kama (Pleasure)

  1. iv) Moksha (Emancipation)
3.1. Chaturvargas(Four stages of Life)
  1. i) Brahmacharya Ashram
  2. ii) Grihastha Ashrama

iii)Vanprastha Ashrama

iv)Sanyasa Ashrama

3.2. Karma Yoga (path of selfless action)
3.2.1.  Types of Karma
  1. i) Sanchita Karma or Stored Karma
  2. ii) Agami Karma or Forthcoming Karma

iii) Prarabdha or Vartamana Karma or Present Karma

3.3. Jnana Yoga (path of knowledge)

3.3.1. Meaning

3.3.2. Jnana yoga(Adi Sankara, Vivekacudamani) Seven limbs of Jnana Yoga

3.4.3. Astanga Yoga(eight limbs of yoga)

  1. yama- social ethical code
  2. niyama- personal ethical code

III. asana- posture

  1. pranayama- control of life-force
  2. pratyahara- sense withdrawal
  3. dharana- concentration

VII. dhyana- absorption

VIII. Samadhi- ecstasy or super consciousness

3.5. Path of Devotion (Bhakti Yoga) Bhagavata Purana nine forms Bhakti
5.1. Mandukya Upanisad
  1. Waking – Vaishvanara
  2. Dreaming – Taijasa
  3. Deep Sleep – Prajna
  4. Beyond this three – Turiya
  5. Taittiriya Upanisad
  6. Annamaya kosha – food sheath
  7. Pranamaya kosha – breath sheath
  8. Manomaya kosha – mind sheath
  9. Vijnanamaya kosha – intellect sheath
  10. Anandamaya kosha – bliss sheath

❏ Practicum

Part -1

  1. Name of Pose in Sanskrit
  2. Name of Pose in English
  3. Benefits
  4. Contraindications

Part – 2

  1. Sthiti (initial)
  2. Transition In with breathing and awareness
  3. Final Pose reflection and refinement
  4. Stability
  5. Comfortability
  6. Alignment
  7. Active muscles and relaxed mind, with soft breathing)
  8. Transition Out with breathing and awareness
  9. Sithila (relaxation)

Part – 3

  1. Counter Pose
  2. Modifications

iii. Alignment cues

Part - 4

Trainee should observe following elements in classes, under the guidance of lead trainee



1. Individual and Group Observation Skill


2. Observation of Transition In


3. Observation of Transition Out


4. Final Pose: Observation Skill


5. Observation of Stability


6. Observation of Comfortability


7.0bservation of Alignment


8 .0bservation of Active muscles


9.0bservation of relaxed mind


10. 0bservation of Breathing


11. 0verall observation skill


1. Individual and Group Observation Skill


2. Observation of Transition In


3. Observation of Transition Out


4. Final Pose: Observation Skill


Part - 5

Trainee should take following yoga classes, under the guidance of lead trainer

Different hatha yoga class sequencing, with different theme.

The steps involved in, basics arc structure of class.

  1. Centering
  2. Prayer/ Chanting
  3. Pranayama
  4. Warm-Up
  5. Surya Namaskara
  6. For beginners: break 3-5 minutes either in Child’s pose Balasana, or Corpse pose Savasana, or standing Intermediate and advanced students can continue without break.
  7. Asana Practice
  8. Standing Asanas – starting from Tree Pose or Tadasana and then transitioning to another standing
  9. Kneeling Poses
  10. Sitting Poses – starting from Seated Tree Pose or Sitting Tadasana and then transitioning to other sitting
  11. Abdomen Poses
  12. Supine Poses
  13. Inverted Poses
  14. Savasana
  15. Closing Pranayama
  16. Ending Prayer



1. Language


2. Pronunciation


3. Space between words


4. Voice


5. Volume of voice


6. Teachers Energy Level


7. Teachers body language


8. Demonstration


9. Hands on adjustment


10. Alignment cue


11. Modification


12. Teachers concern with students


6. Tutorials, Assignment and Examination

  1. i) Trainee will be required to engage in:
  2. Self-Study
  3. Group Discussion
  4. Self-Practice
  5. Oral Presentation
  6. Mock Classes
  7. Submit daily & weekly assignments on the basis of the day’s lectures and discussions.

ii). There will be a practical and a theory exam on   daily / weekly basis to assess the students on their learning, practice and teaching during the Teacher Training Course. 

7. Project Writing

Topics for Project Writing

Description: Related to Yoga, Minimum 50 pages, for 200 hour TTC. 

8. Field Training

  • Each student has to complete 50 hours of teaching yoga under the guidance of a certified lead yoga instructor.
  • This can be completed within one month to maximum of three months, depending on the dedication and time commitment of the student.
  • Upon completing the 50 hours, the student will be rewarded with his/ her certificate, affiliated by the yoga alliance USA.

What you can expect from us?

Experience the change as you indulge in the richness of yoga. Yoga has a rejuvenating effect on the mind and soul of individuals. If you opt for our 300-hour yoga teacher training, you can establish a connection between your spiritual existence and the universe. Spend some time nurturing yourself and bringing out the best version of yourself. 

To channel and give vent to your inner intellect, you need to make sure that your body’s systems are well coordinated with one another. The body works as the storehouse of experience and wisdom. Our 300-hour yoga teacher training will help you to establish a strong foundation. One can empower his relationship with his physique by means of alignment, asana, physiology, and so on.

Yoga helps an individual to understand his choices and the factors that govern his choices and behaviour. In this manner, a person can truly discover himself. Meditation is the best way in which this knowledge of self can be attained. The course includes many meditation techniques that are powerful and effective and help to create a strong foundation in an individual.

Our 300-hour yoga teacher training is extremely comprehensive. Be it for a yogi who is seeking to expand his knowledge or an individual who aspires to earn his reputation as a certified yoga instructor; this course is beneficial. It helps an individual to hone his development along with providing ample scope for self-development.

Get ready to discover yourself with our 300-hour yoga teacher training. Our techniques will help to reveal your true self to yourself and then establish a healthy relationship. We resort to effective means like meditation, breathing techniques, asana, deep relaxation, and many more. We also design a special course that will help you to have a glimpse into yourself. Once you join us, you make way for a joyful and peaceful life.

The program has an extremely professional approach. They are facilitated by skilled and experienced Master Teachers who offer the best and the richest form of education. We offer the best kind of training and techniques that are the well-suited for a 300 RYT certification level.

Is This Course For You?

Is This Course For You? Please view the checklist below to see if Karuna Yoga is a best match for your yoga Journey



What You Should  Know Before This Course 

Skill Level Of 300 Hour Yoga Teacher Training Course In Bangalore, India.

It is a belief that you need to be flexible to enroll for a teacher training programme but that couldn’t be more far from reality as a flexible mind is much more important for the studies and practices of yoga. The body will slowly become more flexible by constant practice and time; thanks to the intense training you will undertake during the 300 hours yoga teacher training course you will improve your overall flexibility, both physical and mental. You don’t need to have any previous experience of yoga since we will walk you through the journey from the foundations.

All levels are welcome for this course, whether you are an experienced practitioner or not, our classes adapt to all levels. Our skillful teachers adapt the practice according to the different needs so you will never feel bored and you will find new things to learn every day.

This course can also be good for those who are already teaching but are missing to have an internationally recognized certification to be also able to open their own yoga studio.3

  • Practice adapted to all levels.
  • Practice adapted to any injuries or physical limitation.
  • No previous experience needed.

Building the practice and studies from the foundation. 

  • No need to have a flexible body.
  • Mental flexibility is needed.
  • Overall strength and flexibility will improve during the course.
  • Becoming a certified yoga teacher. 


A high degree of self-motivation is required for all aspects of the course. The practice and especially the teaching of yoga demand a high degree of self-discipline and purity. To ensure the success of the program, participants are required to attend all spiritual activities, meditation sessions, lectures and asana classes.

Meat, fish, eggs, black tea, coffee, alcohol, tobacco, drugs and nudity are prohibited during the course as they are counterproductive to the yoga practice. Participants who do not comply with the school rules may be dismissed from the course. 

Rules for Students

Smoking and alcohol are strictly prohibited in the school. If you are having a fast any day, you have to inform the kitchen manager for avoiding food waste. Always make discipline, respect teachers and follow all rules. Always be on the time, you are late means will not be permitted to join the class.

Clear your books of account before departure. Before departure return your books, maps or any goods which you borrowed. 

Refund Policy

An advance of course fees will not be refundable, only in the case of emergency students can join us on other schedules.

If a student cancels the course after joining it, we accept cancellation but course fees will not be refunded in cancellation. There is no charge of course cancellation. 

Assessment and Certification

  • The students are continuously assessed throughout the course at all levels.
  • There will be a practical as well as written examination at the end of the course to evaluate the understanding of the philosophy of Yoga and skills of the students.
  • Participant should pass all different aspects of the course to be eligible for the Yoga teacher Training Course. 

Assessment is based on

  1. Regular attendance of all classes.
  1. Attitude and behaviour inside and outside of the ashram while attending the course.
  2. Performance and attitude in the practical asana, pranayama, bandhas and kriya classes.
  3. Hatha yoga teaching skills.
  4. Written daily summary of the main philosophy classes and Hatha yoga theory classes.
  5. Upon successful completion of the course students receive the Certificate of the Karuna Yoga. 

❏ Guarantee

We guarantee the course will give you correct and sufficient knowledge of yoga, yogic philosophy, proper teaching skills, and enough practical training to teach others with ease and confidence.

❏ Post Course Support

We understand the importance of post-course support and we offer it to all our students. You can contact our teachers directly via Skype, phone, email, and instant messaging about any queries and questions.

❏ RYT 300

As Karuna yoga Vidya Peetham Yoga graduate, you can also register with Yoga Alliance as RYT 300 (Registered Yoga Teacher 300-hour level).

How to Register?

To register, please complete the online application form by clicking the ‘Apply Now’ button below. Upon receiving your application, we will review and confirm with you within two working days. Please note that our yoga certification courses in India fill up well in advance. Please apply in time to karunaayoga@gmail.com secure your place.  

300 hr Yoga Teacher Training India FAQ

After this course, you will have the strongest foundation recommended for any good teacher. You can work full-time or part-time as a yoga teacher at a yoga studio, or you can start your own classes or a full-fledged studio. 

Yes, to ensure proper personal attention and guidance to all students, each course has limited seats five to ten. 

Sometimes it is possible to bring someone as a guest. Please write to us to check the availability. 

Yes, even though the course is only four weeks / one month, our students agree that they learn more than they could in two years back home. This is because you will solely focus on yoga during the entire month of teacher training.

Everyone has some challenges, it is normal. A flexible mind is more important than a flexible body. The program will teach you how to work with different challenges.

Yes, this course does not require any previous education.
It’s the foundation course and will teach the most important principles and skills from scratch. All you need is a genuine interest in yoga. We recommend a regular practice of at least one year, but it is fully accessible to complete beginners.

Age from 18 begins, as long as you have a sincere desire to learn and you are physically fine you can follow this course.

This teacher training course is taught in basic English because the students come from all over the world. If you can read an English magazine, you will be able to follow the course.

We do not have a mandatory reading list, but we have a suggested reading list. We prefer that you first understand the concepts in the course and then read the books. This way, you can gain the most out of your reading.

Yes, if you don’t push yourselves too far. But please let us know in advance.

You will need a yoga mat, meditation cushion, and a blanket.

When you finish the course and the final practicums, you will be presented with the certificate on the last day of the course.

Yes, many of our students do not want to become professional yoga teachers, but they do this course to gain a solid foundation and deep knowledge for their personal practice and spiritual journey. 

In our 200-hour yoga teacher training, you will learn the original yoga style,’ Hatha Yoga and Vinyasa ‘. This is the foundation style. 

The final practicum consists of a simple theory and practical teaching exams. The teachers will prepare you for both. For your reference, the average passing rate is 98%. 

Yes, at karuna yoga, we provide lifetime support to our students. You can contact the teachers anytime, even after you have completed your training. 

To register as an RYT 300, please go to the Yoga Alliance website and follow the registration process and pay their membership fees. During the process, you will be asked to upload a copy of your certificate issued by us. Once you have completed the application, we will receive a notification to check and verify your application. Once we verify, you will be registered. 

We don’t have deadlines, but our courses fill up well in advance. Therefore we recommend you reserve your seat as soon as you have decided to join our course.  

 For cancellations due to Covid-19, we offer free cancellations. In other cases, we offer a cheaper non-refundable fee structure and a refundable fee structure. Please drop us an email for full details. 

You can get an invoice for your payment. If you have a company, you can put it in costs. 

Yes, it is possible to pay in installments. Please drop us an email for details. 

As of November 22, 2022, foreign nationals and citizens of India no longer need a self-declaration form, proof of vaccination, or a negative RT-PCR test to enter India.

However, symptomatic travelers must immediately quarantine in a designated quarantine facility subsequently for follow-up treatment. After arrival, travelers must self-monitor their health. Travelers must report to their nearest health facility or call the national or state helpline number in case of COVID-19 symptoms. 

Most international travelers need to have a valid visa before traveling to India. It is easy to get an e-visa for India. Applicants of the eligible countries/territories may apply online at least four days before the date of arrival.

E-Tourist Visa Facility is Available for Nationals of the Following Countries/territories:

Albania, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman Island, Chile, China, China- SAR Hongkong, China- SAR Macau, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d’lvoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niue Island, Norway, Oman, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Saint Christopher and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Island, Tuvalu, UAE, Ukraine, Uruguay, USA, Vanuatu, Vatican City-Holy See, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe.