1. Why yoga student should know about “anatomy”
Understanding yoga anatomy is crucial for all yoga students because it will increase the effectiveness of the asanas and knowledge to protect from creating injuries and also be better prepared to deal with any existing injuries safely and effectively.
2. Why yoga student should know about “Physiology”
Through the study of anatomy in yoga teacher training, you will acquire a deep understanding of the execution and alignment of asanas. An awareness in yoga anatomy and physiology will add credibility to your teaching and will be very helpful to your prospective yoga students.
3. How many ‘planes’ are their in human body.
There are the 3 planes of motion/movement in the body. The three planes in human body are the sagittal, coronal (or frontal) and transverse planes
4. How many lobes are their in right lungs?
The right lung consists of three lobes: the right upper lobe (RUL), the right middle lobe (RML), and the right lower lobe (RLL)
5. Function of diaphragm in respiration.
Upon inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and flattens and the chest cavity enlarges. This contraction creates a vacuum, which pulls air into the lungs. Upon exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and returns to its domelike shape, and air is forced out of the lungs.
6. List out yogic practices to overcome Shallow breathing.
Practices such as Sun salutation, asanas (e.g., bridge pose, …), pranayama (Nadi shodana, kapalabati), conscious effort and mindfulness practices can help to overcome shallow breathing.
7. Why we have to do deep breathing, during hatha yoga practices.
The deep, intentional breathing which accompanies the poses removes energetic blockages and serves to purify the body, increasing prana flow. Deep breathing during hatha yoga can help rid the lungs of accumulated stale air, increase oxygen levels and get the diaphragm to return to its job of helping you breathe.
8. Define Hypoventilation, how you will manage by hatha yoga practices.
Hypoventilation is breathing that is too shallow or too slow to meet the needs of the body. If a person hypoventilates, the body’s carbon dioxide level rises. This causes a buildup of acid and too little oxygen in the blood. A person with hypoventilation might feel sleepy. The kind of breathing generally practiced in most hatha yoga classes is called Ujjayi breathing, which loosely translates as “victory” breathing. This is not to say that the quality of the breath should be aggressive, but rather that there is a steadiness, resonance, and depth to it.
9. What is the breathing pattern we should adopt for forward bending asana?
Exhale when forward bending during asana practice.
10. What is the breathing pattern we should adopt for backward bending asana?
Inhale when backward bending asana
11. What is the breathing pattern we should adopt for lateral bending asana?
Exhale when moving into side bends.
12. What is the breathing pattern we should adopt for twisting asana?
Exhale when twisting asana
13. What is the breathing pattern we should adopt for arm balancing asana?
Most of the arm balancing asanas adopt, exhaling breathing pattern.
14. What is the breathing pattern we should adopt for axial extension asana?
Exhale for axial extension asanas
15. Why we should breathe.
Breathing not only provide your body with necessary oxygen, but it also removes the waste like carbon dioxide. To get rid of carbon dioxide, your blood delivers it to the capillaries surrounding your alveoli. In the alveoli, the carbon dioxide moves into the lungs, where it leaves the body when you exhale.
16. Why we should breathe in nose, why not in mouth.
Nose breathing is more beneficial than mouth breathing. Breathing through your nose can help filter out dust and allergens, boost your oxygen uptake, and humidify the air you breathe in. Mouth breathing, on the other hand, can dry out your mouth. This may increase your risk of bad breath and gum inflammation.
17. Write the general benefits of hatha yoga practices on respiratory system.
Practice of hatha yoga which is a combination of asanas (physical postures) and Pranayama (Yogic breathing exercises) provides a sense of equilibrium to the body, mind and soul and is vital for the smooth functioning of the respiratory system.
18. How muscles are communicating towards brain.
The motor neurons release a chemical, which is picked up by the muscle fibre. This tells the muscle fibre to contract, which makes the muscles move. Neurons carry messages from the brain via the spinal cord. These messages are carried to the muscles which tell the muscle fibre to contract, which makes the muscles move.
19. Explain about slow twitch muscle fiber (type -1), with respective hatha yoga style.
A type of muscle fibre associated with aerobic work. It produces a small force over a long period of time: high resistance to fatigue. It is suited to endurance-based activities, e.g., marathon running. Example, traditional hatha yoga (Sivananda & Iyengar)
20. Explain about Fast twitch muscle fiber (type -2), with hatha yoga practices.
These are designed for anaerobic exercise and produces large amount of force in a very short time, as they fatigue easily. Performers in power events tend to have a high percentage of fast twitch muscle fibres. Example, Vinyasa
21. Explain Aerobic hatha yoga
Aerobic yoga is a style of yoga in which the asanas — yoga postures — are sequenced together much faster than they ordinarily would be, in order to get the heart pumping and offer cardiovascular benefits. This takes place with oxygen where carbohydrate and oxygen are used as fuel for the first two minutes after which fat is burned. These are lower intensity activities. Dynamic sequences of Sun Salutation can be regarded as aerobic exercises.
22. Explain anaerobic hatha yoga.
Anaerobic is performed in the absence of oxygen (It uses carbohydrate and minimal oxygen) at a maximal intensity that can only be sustained for a short period of time due to the build-up of lactic acid, e.g. sprinting. This happens without oxygen, fuel comes from muscle storage and is short, highly intense and burns fat directly. Example is weightlifting.
23. Compare and correlate aerobic exercise and hatha yoga practices.
Aerobic exercise is performed in the presence of oxygen at a submaximal intensity over a prolonged period of time, e.g. rowing. Yoga is necessary to control and regulate breath, which is related to prana flow. Aerobics puts pressure on your joints and can increase the risk of joint injuries. On the other hand, yoga strengthens the bones and joints.
24. Compare and correlate anaerobic exercise and hatha yoga practices.
Anaerobic is performed in the absence of oxygen at a maximal intensity that can only be sustained for a short period of time due to the build up of lactic acid, e.g. sprinting. This happens without oxygen, fuel comes from muscle storage and is short, highly intense and burns fat directly. On the other hand, With the hatha yoga practice, you move your body slowly, deliberately using appropriate breathing into different poses that challenge your strength and flexibility, while at the same time focusing on relaxation and mindfulness.
25. Define Isometric Contraction
This is a contraction in which no movement takes place, because the load on the muscle exceeds the tension generated by the contracting muscle. This occurs when a muscle attempts to push or pull an immovable object. Example: Plank pose. In this pose the muscles are working, but not actively changing lengths.
26. Define Isotonic Contraction
This is a contraction in which movement does take place, because the tension generated by the contracting muscle exceeds the load on the muscle. This occurs when you use your muscles to successfully push or pull an object. Example: From Hasta utthatasana to padahastasana and bridge to chakrasana. In this pose, muscle extend and then shorten while bending.
27. Define Cartilage
Cartilage is the main type of connective tissue seen throughout the body. It serves a variety of structural and functional purposes and exists in different types throughout our joints, bones, spine, lungs, ears and nose
28. Define Tendon
A tendon is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone. Tendons may also attach muscles to structures such as the eyeball. A tendon serves to move the bone or structure.
29. Define Ligament
A ligament is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches bone to bone, and usually serves to hold structures together and keep them stable.
30. Define Fascia
Fascia is made up of sheets of connective tissue that is found below the skin. These tissues attach, stabilize, impart strength, maintain vessel patency, separate muscles, and enclose different organs.
31. Define Bursae
Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that reduce friction between moving parts in your body’s joints. Elbow bursitis is inflammation or irritation of the bursa (shown in blue) in your elbow.
32. Explain term Flexion, in compare with asana movement.
Flexion of a joint makes a body part move in a forward direction from the anatomical position. Flexion is a movement that brings the spine down and forward towards the legs, and typically stretches the posterior chain. In yoga practice, spinal flexion is another way to refer to forward bends. Cat pose and Child’s pose are postures where the spine is in flexion, and mostly rounded.
33. Explain term Extension, in compare with asana movement.
Extension is an increase in the angle of a joint. Extension of a joint makes a body part move in a backwards direction. (The knee joint is the only exception to this rule where flexion moves the lower leg backwards and extension moves the lower leg forwards.). Spinal extension is a movement that lengthens the spine upwards (axial extension) and backwards. Otherwise known as backward bends (or simply backbends) in yoga, spinal extension stretches and strengthens the spine, particularly opening up the thoracic spine and the muscles of the chest and shoulders.
34. Explain term Abduction, in compare with asana movement.
Abduction of a joint makes a body part move away from the midline of the body in the anatomical position. For instance, abduction is the term used for the movement made, and not for the position of the hands at a particular point. Same goes with the legs: Moving of the legs away from the midline, as one spreads one’s legs out to any possible degree is known as abduction of the legs.
35. Explain term Adduction, in compare with asana movement.
Adduction of a joint makes a body part move towards the midline of the body. For instance, adduction happens when we move the thigh toward or beyond the midline of the body. It’s what you might refer to as “squeezing the inner thighs.” Coming into Garudasana or Eagle pose is an example of hip adduction.
36. Explain term Supination, in compare with asana movement.
Turning the palms of the hands upward, or walking on the outer edge of the foot. Supine means lying in a faceup position. It is the opposite of prone, which is lying face down. Similarly, supination means to turn a hand, foot, or limb upward, whereas pronation refers to turning them downward.
38. Explain term Pronation, in compare with asana movement.
Turning the palms of the hands downward, or walking on the inside edge of the foot. Pronation describes a rotational movement of the forearm that results in the palm facing posteriorly (when in the anatomic position). Supination describes the motion of turning the palm anteriorly
39. Explain term Lateral flexion, in compare with asana movement.
Lateral flexion is a movement that bends the body to the right or left side. It helps to open up the side-body, strengthens the obliques, and is helpful in increasing flexibility of the spine. Lateral flexion also opens up the ribcage, helping to expand the lungs and aid in deeper breathing. As with spinal flexion and extension, there is potential to compress the lower back when moving into lateral flexion. It is therefore important to create length (axial extension) before bending the body to the side.
40. Explain term Medial rotation (internal rotation), in compare with asana movement.
Medial rotation is rotating toward the midline. Medial rotation is a term describing a specific anatomical motion. The term medial in anatomy refers to moving closer to the median plane, or central vertical divider, of the body. Thus, a medial rotation is the movement of a limb or muscle group toward the center of the body. Internal (medial) Rotation – as if the fronts of the inner thighs are moving towards each other – Hero’s pose when sitting between the heels.
41. Explain term Lateral rotation (external rotation), in compare with asana movement.
Lateral rotation is rotating away from the midline. An external rotation is when the head of the femur, or thigh bone, moves outwards from our centre line. These are poses we do a lot in a yoga class: warrior 2, triangle pose, extended side angle pose, tree pose, half-moon pose… and of course seated poses such as cross-legged or lotus and any of those leg variations including pigeon pose.
42. Explain term Elevation, in compare with asana movement.
Elevation is raising the shoulders upward. Example, tadasana, trikonasana, vrikshasana and Ujjayi pranayama.
43. Explain term Depression, in compare with asana movement.
Depression is lowering the shoulders. Depression is the downward movement of structures of the body, e.g. depression of a shoulder joint lowers the corresponding arm vertically downwards.
44. Explain term Dorsiflexion, in compare with asana movement.
Dorsiflexion of the ankle joint makes the foot move towards the shin as when you walk on your heels. Example, Natarajasana and warrior 3 asanas
45. Explain term plantar flexion, in compare with asana movement.
Plantar flexion of the ankle joint makes the foot move away from the shin as when you walk on your tiptoes. Plantar flexion is a foot movement in which the toes and foot flex toward the sole.
46. Explain term Eversion, in compare with asana movement.
Soles of the feet away from the midline. Example, Triangle, warrior 1, eagle and half-moon poses.
47. Explain term Inversion, in compare with asana movement.
Soles of the feet in toward the midline. This includes common poses such as Downward-Facing Dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana) and Headstand (Salamba Shirshasana).
48. Explain term Protraction, in compare with asana movement.
Moving the scapula away from the spine, also called scapular abduction or jutting the mandible forward. When having understood this action, it can be easily applied in poses like Phalakasana (Plank Pose), Uttanasana (Standing Forward Fold Pose), Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Fold Pose), and some similar poses where although the shoulders are away from the ears, the shoulder blades move away from each other.
49. Explain term Retraction, in compare with asana movement.
Moving the scapula toward the spine, also called scapular adduction or pulling the mandible backward. When you draw your shoulder blades together, it’s a retraction, and when they are apart, it’s protraction. With protraction, you can think about cat pose or plank, you want to pull the shoulder blades away from each other. For retraction think about cobra pose, lifting the chest as the shoulder blades draw in to touch.