Samkhya is one of the six classical schools of Indian philosophy, and it focuses on the investigation and analysis of the nature of reality. The word “samkhya” comes from the Sanskrit root “samkhya”, which means “enumeration” or “counting,” and the Samkhya system is characterized by its emphasis on the enumeration of the principles of creation.
According to Samkhya, there are two fundamental entities in the universe: purusha (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Purusha is pure consciousness and is unchanging, eternal, and free from all qualities. Prakriti, on the other hand, is the material cause of the universe, and it is made up of three qualities or gunas: sattva (purity, light), rajas (activity, passion), and tamas (inertia, darkness).
The Samkhya system explains the process of creation as the interaction between purusha and prakriti. When purusha comes into contact with prakriti, it causes prakriti to undergo a transformation, and the three gunas become active. This interaction leads to the creation of the physical universe, which is composed of the five elements: earth, water, fire, air, and ether.
Samkhya also describes the evolution of consciousness through a process of purification and detachment. The goal of Samkhya is to attain liberation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death by achieving a state of pure consciousness, free from all attachment and identification with the material world.
The Samkhya system has had a significant influence on Indian philosophy and is still studied and practiced today.