Saiva Siddhanta is a philosophical and religious system that originated in South India and is closely related to the Shaivism branch of Hinduism. It is a non-dualistic philosophy that emphasizes the oneness of God, soul, and the world, and aims to help individuals attain liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
Saiva Siddhanta has its roots in the teachings of the Tamil saint Thirumoolar, who lived in the 6th or 7th century CE. It was later developed and systematized by a number of scholars and philosophers, including Meykandar, Arulnandi Sivacharya, and Nambi Andar Nambi.
One of the key beliefs of Saiva Siddhanta is that the ultimate reality is Siva, who is both transcendent and immanent. Siva is seen as the source of all existence, and everything in the world is seen as a manifestation of Siva’s energy or grace.
Saiva Siddhanta also holds that each individual soul is ultimately one with Siva, but that ignorance and attachment to the material world cause the soul to become trapped in the cycle of birth and death. Liberation from this cycle is achieved through the grace of Siva and the attainment of true knowledge or wisdom.
Practices associated with Saiva Siddhanta include devotional practices such as worship of Siva and meditation, as well as ethical practices such as non-violence, truthfulness, and compassion. The system also includes a set of philosophical and theological texts, including the Tirumantiram, the Shiva Puranas, and the Saiva Agamas.
Overall, Saiva Siddhanta is a rich and complex philosophical and religious tradition that seeks to help individuals achieve liberation from suffering and experience the ultimate reality of oneness with Siva.