Advaita Vedanta is a non-dualistic school of Indian philosophy that holds that the ultimate reality is Brahman, which is absolute consciousness and the unchanging essence of the universe. The word “Advaita” means “not two” or “non-dual,” which refers to the idea that the self (atman) and the absolute (Brahman) are one and the same.
Advaita Vedanta teaches that ignorance or avidya is the root cause of suffering and that liberation can be attained by realizing the true nature of oneself as identical to Brahman. The path to liberation is through jnana yoga or the path of knowledge, which involves inquiry and meditation on the nature of the self and ultimate reality.
One of the key texts of Advaita Vedanta is the Brahma Sutras, which was compiled by the sage Vyasa and provides a systematic analysis of the Vedas. The Upanishads, which are considered the philosophical and mystical texts of the Vedas, are also highly regarded in Advaita Vedanta.
Advaita Vedanta has had a significant influence on Hinduism and has also gained popularity among non-Hindu spiritual seekers in the West. Some of the notable figures associated with Advaita Vedanta include Adi Shankara, a 8th-century Indian philosopher and theologian, and Ramana Maharshi, a 20th-century Indian sage and spiritual teacher.