Upanishads are a collection of ancient philosophical and spiritual texts in Hinduism, which form the basis of the Vedanta philosophy. There are over 200 Upanishads, but only a few of them are considered to be the primary Upanishads, and they are considered to be the final parts of the Vedas.
The word “Upanishad” comes from the Sanskrit words “upa” (near), “ni” (down), and “shad” (to sit), which means “to sit down near” a teacher and receive instruction. These texts were traditionally studied and discussed in a guru-disciple setting, and they were meant to impart knowledge about the nature of the self, the universe, and the divine.
The Upanishads explore a wide range of topics, including the nature of the ultimate reality, the nature of the individual soul, the relationship between the two, and the path to liberation from the cycle of birth and death. They offer a deep understanding of the nature of consciousness, the meaning of existence, and the purpose of human life.
Overall, the Upanishads are considered to be one of the most important sources of Hindu philosophy and spiritual wisdom, and they continue to be studied and revered by people around the world.