Patanjali Yoga Sutra – Sadhana Pada- Reasons for experiencing pain & how to remove it?
2.3. Avidyasmitaragadvesabhinivesah klesah|
- Abhinivesah-fear of death
Ignorance, I-feeling, liking, disliking and fear of death, this all are the reasons for experiencing pains in our walk of life .
Ignorance is the foundation cause for all pain
2.4. Avidyaksetramuttaresam prasuptatanuvichchhinnodaranam|
- Uttaresam-of the following
- Udaranam-fully operated, expanded
Avidya or ignorance can be resided in the states of dormant, thin, scattered or expanded.
Meaning for Ignorance?
2.5. Anityasuchiduhkhanatmasu nityasuchisukhatmakhyatiravidya|
- Anitya-not eternal
Meaning of Avidya or Ignorance is mis-understanding of non-eternal, impure, evil things considering as eternal, pure, good and atman.
Ego or ‘I’ feeling is one of the ignorance
- Drg-purusha, power of consciousness, power to see
- Darsana-that which is seen, cognition
- Saktyoh-of the two powers
- Iva-as if
Asmita or ‘I’feeling, is the identity as it were of the purusha or pure consciousness with the Buddhi or discrminated knowledge.
Attachment is the one of the Ignorance
2.7. Sukhanusayi ragah|
Raga is the liking to such activities, which gives all sensual pleasures.
Hatred is one of the Ignorance
2.8. Duhkhanusayi dvesah|
Disliking means, the action which gives pain to physicall and mental level.
Clinging to life is one of the ignorance
2.9. Svarasavahi viduso’pi tatharudho’bhinivesah|
- Svarasavahi-sustained by its one force
- Vidush-of the learned
- Tatha-like that
- Abhinivesah-fear of death, clining to life
Abhinivesha means desire for mundane life to extend, even this quality dominates learned wise people too.
Future Pain in life can be reducible
2.10. Te pratiprasavaheyah suksmah|
Those future pains can be avoidable or reducible by involution or by yogic practice, when they are subtle.
Through Meditation Future Pain can Be Avoidable
- 11. Dhyanaheyastadvrttayah|
- Tadvrttayah-their modification
The modifications of the kleshas are reducible through meditation.
Our past accumulated action is reason for present & future pain
2.12. Klesamulah karmasayo drsthadrsthajanmavedaniyah|
- Drstha-seen, present
- Adrstha-not seen, future
- Vedaniyah-to be experienced
This accumulated karmas which is the root cause of afflictions is to be experienced in the present and future births.
Fruits of accumulated action
2.13. Sati mule tadvipako jatyayurbhogah|
- Sati mule- so long as the root is there
- Jati-birth, class
- Ayuh-span of life
So long as the root of accumulated karma is there, it ripens and gives birth and class, span of life and experience.
Fruits depend on past life action
2.14. Te hladaparitapaphalah punyapunyahetutvat|
- Hetutvat-on account of
They have happiness or sorrow as their fruits depending upon their merit or demerit of past life action.
Pleasure and pain both are painful indeed
2.15. Parinamatapasamskaraduhkhairgunavrttivirodhacca duhkhamva sarvam vivekinah ,
- Parinama-result, consequence
- Tapa-acute suffering
- Duhkhaih-by these three pains
- Guna-three gunas
- Vrtti-modification of mind
- Virodhat-on account of, opposing
- Vivekinah-those who have discrimination
In the case of one who has discrimintaive knowledge (viveka), all is painful because of pains due to change, acute suffering, samskaras, and also due to gunas and vrittis in opposition.