NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
Nutrition may be defined as the science of food and its relationship to health.
FOOD: is the substance taken into the body that will help meet the body’s need for energy. Maintenance of health, growth and reproduction.
CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS
There are many ways of classifying foods.
CLASSIFICATION BY ORIGIN
- Foods of animal origin
- Foods of vegetable origin.
CLASSIFICATION BY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Energy giving foods
- Sugars Roots
- Fats and Oils.
CLASSIFICATION BY NUTRITIVE VALUE
- Cereals and Millets
- Nuts and oilseeds
- Animal Foods
- Fats and oils
- Sugar and jaggery
- Condiments and spices
- Miscellaneous foods.
HUMAN NUTRITION IS GOVERNED BY MANY FACTORS LIKE
Food habits and behavior ethnic influences geographic influences, religions and sociological factors, psychological factors, income, educational status etc., Health is reflected in arson’s nutritional status. Nutritional status is the condition of the individual as influenced by the utilisation of the nutrients. Thus food play a prominent role in providing physical, mental and social well being which is otherwise known as health to people.
It is the practical application of the principles of nutrition, it includes the planning of meals for the well and the sick.
- To maintain good nutritional status of a sick person and to correct deficiencies.
- Formulation of diet based on the needs and food habits.
- Education of the patient regarding dietary modification.
MAINTENANCE OF GOOD NUTRITIONAL STATUS
- To understand the underlying cause of disease.
- To evaluate the duration of disease and categories into acute and chronic diseases.
- Clearly analyse the food habits of the patient
- To Select the appropriate nature of dietary change
FORMULATION OF DIET
- Effect of the present disease on food acceptance.
- Likes and dislikes of the patient
- Any specific food allergies of the patient
EDUCATION OF THE PATIENT
- It is important to educate the patient as well as his or her family members about the dietary prescription.
- Property explain the patient to the procedure, timing and detailed explanation of the preparatory methods at home.
DIETS ARE MODIFIED IN THREE DIFFERENT WAYS
- Liquid diet – Clear Fluid
- Full fluid
- Soft Diet
- Light Diet
It is usually prescribed for patients in the pre or post operative stage for 1-2 days. This diet is nutritionally inadequate but is used for a very short period of time. Ex: Tea, coffee, Milk, soups etc.,
Used for patients who are actually ill or who are unable to chew or swallow solid food.
This diet is intermediate between a full fluid and light diet. Used for patients who are convalescing from surgery, gastro – intestinal disturbances and acute infections. This diet can be nutritionally adequate when planned on the basis of a normal diet.
It is very similar to soft diet. It includes sample salads such as fruits, vegetables ete.
Dietetics play an important role in the treatment can be grouped as
- Deficiency Diseases
- Gastro intestinal diseases
- Kidney diseases
- Diseases of the heart
- Diseases of the liver and biliary tract
- Metabolic disorders
- Hormonal disorders