Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham Bangalore

Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology


It is the science that deals with the structures of the human body and its relationship of various parts to each other.

The subject matter of anatomy includes

  1. Histology – Study of tissues
  2. Osteology – Study of bones
  3. Mycology – Study of muscles
  4. Arthrology – Study of Joints
  5. Splanchnology – Study of organs
  6. Neurology – Study of Nervous System


It is the science which deals with the functions of the body. It explains how various systems in the body function together normally as a single unit. The subject matter of physiology includes the study of various systems like.

  1. Central nervous system
  2. Cardio vascular system
  3. Digestive system
  4. Excretory system
  5. Respiratory system
  6. Reproductive system etc.,


Each and every part of our body is composed of tiny microscopic units, the Cell. Cell is the structural and functional unit of the body. Cells have different shapes and sizes according to their nature of work


Cells are highly organised units but they do not function in isolation.  They work together in a group of similar cells called tissue. Every tissue has got its specialized function to perform.


  1. Epithelial tissue
  2. Connective tissue
  3. Muscular tissue
  4. Nervous tissue

Epithelial Tissue

It covers the body surfaces and forms gland. It forms external layer of the skin, internal living the mucus membrane of the body cavities and the hollow organs.


  • Secretion
  • Protection
  • Absorption
  • Excretion

Connective Tissue

It includes the blood cells, loose and dense (fiber) connective tissue, adipose tissue, lymph cartilages and bones. Major function of connective tissue is to connect, anchor and support the other tissues of the body and to form structural frame work of the body.

Muscular Tissue

It is responsible for movements of the body and organs. This is because of its characteristic function of contraction.

It forms mainly three types of muscle fibres.

  1. Cardiac muscle
  2. Smooth muscle
  3. Striated or Skeletal muscle


  • Motion is an essential body function which results from the contraction and relaxation of muscles.
  • Maintenance of posture and
  • Heat production.

Nervous Tissue

It forms the whole nervous system.  It initiates and transmits nerve impulses that coordinate the body and its surrounding environment.  The main properties of this tissue are excitability and conductivity nervous tissue responds to various stimuli.  Nervous tissue is composed of nerve cells and their processes. These processes born the nerve fibers.  Such unit of nervous tissue is known as neuron. They construct the nerves in the body.


Different kinds of tissues are joined together to form higher level of organisation. i.e. organ

Organs have recognizable shape.  Each organ has a complex structure and it performs a specific function of the body.


Liver, Heart, Brain, Lungs, Stomach ete


A system is an association of organs that have a common function.

Types and various systems in the human body

There are 11 major systems such as

  • Skeletal system
  • Muscular System
  • Digestive system
  • Respiratory system
  • Nervous system
  • Circulatory System
  • Urinary System
  • Endocrine system
  • Reproductive system
  • Integument system
  • Immune system







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