Hatha Yoga Pradipika – Chapter Four: Samadhi
Synonymous words for Raja Yoga
Rajayogah samadhis cha unmani cha manonmani /
Amaratvam layas tattvam sunyasunyam param padam//
Raja Yoga, Samadhi, Unmani, Manonmani, Amaratva, Laya, Sahaja Tattva, Shoonyashoonya, Parampadam. (Chapter -4, Verse 3).
Amanaskam tathadvaitam niralambam niranjanam/
Jivanmuktischa sahaja turya chetyekavachakah//
Amanaskam, advaitam, niralambha, niranjana, jivanmukti, sahaja and turiya are all synonymous words. (Chapter -4, Verse 4).
Mind and Soul mixed like salt in the sea
Salile saindhavam yadvatsamyam bhajati yogatah/
As salt mixed in the sea, like that the mind and soul or atma are considered united in samadhi state. (Chapter -4, Verse 5).
Ending of Prana and Mind in Samadhi state
Ending of Prana and Mind in Samadhi state – Activities of prana is annihilated, then mind is reabsorbed in samadhi.
Yada samkshiyate prano manasam cha praliyate/
Tada samarasatvam cha samadhir abhidhiyate//
When the activities of Prana are totally annihilated, then mind is reabsorbed in samadhi state achieved. (Chapter -4, Verse 6).
Individual soul merge with universal soul, all desires eliminated
When Jivatma unites with Paramatma, desires are eliminated
Tatsamam cha dvayoraikyam jivatmaparamatmanoh /
Pranashtasarvasangkalpah samadhih so abhidhiyate//
When the twofold characteristics of the individual soul and cosmic soul become one, all desires are eliminated and that state is called samadhi. (Chapter -4, Verse 7).
Karmas get annihilated when prana flows in Sushumna Nadi
All Karmas(actions) get annihilated when prana flows in sushumna nadi, mind remain in complete shoonya(void).
Sushumnavahini prane sunye visati manase/
Tada sarvani karmani nirmulayati yogavit//
When prana is moving through sushumna nadi, mind is in pure shoonya(void). Then all the karmas of the one knowing yoga are annihilated. (Chapter -4, Verse 12).
Kundalini is to be blocked at Brahmarandhra Nadi
The ultimate union and samadhi happens at sahasrara chakra. This location is at the crown of the head. The very upper portion of head is called brahmarandhra. The energy and consciousness must remain there, if they gone beyond, there is no return back to the physical body.
Jnatva sushumnasadbhedam krtva vayum cha madhyagham /
Sthitva sadaiva susthane brahmarandhre nirodhayet//
Staying in the most conducive place, having found out how to penetrate sushumna and move the prana through the middle passage, it should be blocked in the brahmarandhra, the center of higher consciousness state.(Chapter -4, Verse 16).
Manonmani (consciousness without mind) State
Manonmani (consciousness without mind) – Manonmani is obtained when prana flows in sushumna nadi
Sushumnavahini prane siddhyatyeva manonmani/
Anyatha tvitarabhyasah prayasayaiva yoghinam//
When the prana travels in the sushumna nadi this state of manonmani (consciousness without mind) is obtained. Therefore, other forced practices are just laborious to the Hatha Yogi. (Chapter -4, Verse 20).
Prana and mind are controlled through each other
Pavano badhyate yena manastenaiva badhyate /
Manascha badhyate yena pavanastena badhyate//
Through controlling the prana, thought is contolled and through control of thought, prana or air is controlled. (Chapter -4, Verse 21).
Chitta has two qualities: vasana and prana
Hetudvayam tu chittasya vasana cha samiranah /
Tayorvinashta ekasmintau dvavapi vinasyatah//
Chitta has two qualities, vasana and prana. When one of the two is eliminated or deactivated the other also will become inertia. (Chapter -4, Verse 22).
Stillness and interconnection between mind and prana
Mano yatra viliyeta pavanastatra liyate/
Pavano liyate yatra manastatra viliyate//
Where mind is stilled, then the prana is suspended there, and where prana is suspended, there the mind also gets stilled. (Chapter -4, Verse 23).
Prana and Mind are united like milk and water
tau Tulyakriyau manasamarutau hi/
Yato maruttatra manahpravrttir //
Yato manas tatra marutpravrttih//
Mind and prana are united like milk and water. Two of them are equal in their activities. Where there is pranic movement or there mind also active. Where there is mind, there is prana too exist. (Chapter -4, Verse 24).
Tatraikanasad aparasya nasa Ekapravrtter aparapravrttih /
Adhvas tayos chendriyavarghavrttih Pradhvastayor mokshapadasya siddhih//
Therefore, if one is destroyed, the other is annihilated; if one is active, the other becomes active, and while they exist, all the senses are active. If they are controlled, the state of liberation is obtained. (Chapter -4, Verse 25).
Mind controlles the senses, prana controlles the mind, nada controlles the prana
Indriyanam mano natho manonathastu marutah/
Marutasya layo nathah sa layo nadamasritah//
Mind is the controller of the senses, prana is the controller of the mind. Dissolution is the lord of the prana and that dissolution, laya is the foundation of nada. (Chapter -4, Verse 29).
Shambhavi Mudra (eyebrow center gazing)
Shambhavi mudra (eyebrow center gazing) internalizes pranic flow and mind – If the Hatha Yogi remains with the chitta and prana absorbed in the internal object and gaze motionless, though seeing, he is not seeing, this is called shambhavi mudra, realm of Shiva consciousness).
Antarlakshyam bahirdrshtir nimeshonmeshavarjita /
Esha sa sambhavi mudra vedasastreshu ghopita//
With internalised one-pointed awareness and external gaze unblinking, that truly is shambhavi mudra, preserved in the Vedas. (Chapter -4, Verse 36).
Antarlakshyavilinachittapavano Yogi Yada vartate /
Drshtya nischalataraya bahir adhah pasyannapasyannapi /
Mudreyam khalu sambhavi bhavati sa labdha prasadad ghuroh/
Śunyasunyavilakshanam sphurati tattattvam Padam sambhavam//
If the Hatha Yogi remains with the chitta and prana absorbed in the internal object and gaze motionless, though seeing, he is not seeing, this is called shambhavi mudra. When it is bestowed by the guru’s blessing, the state of shoonyashoonya obtained. That is the real state of Shiva consciousness. (Chapter -4, Verse 37)
Tare jyotishi samyojya kimchidunnamayed bhruvau/
Purvayogam mano yunjannunmanikarakah kshanat//
Fix the gaze on the tip of the nose and raise the eyebrows a little, within the mind contemplating, inwardly thinking of Brahma, but apparently looking outside. This will create the Unmani avastha state.
Bhrumadhya is the place of Shiva and place of turiya
Bhrumadhya is the place of Shiva and place of turiya – Middle of the Eyebrows is the place of Shiva, there the mind is quiet, known as turiya or the fourth state. There, time is unknown
Bhruvormadhye sivasthanam manastatra viliyate/
Jnatavyam tatpadam turyam tatra kalo na vidyate//
In the middle of the Eyebrows is the place of Shiva, there the mind is quiet. That state is known as turiya or the fourth state. There, time is unknown.(Chapter -4, Verse 48).
Mind dissolves in Samadhi – As camphor burnt in fire, and salt mix in the sea, in samadhi mind dissolves into ‘Thatness’
Karpuramanale yadvatsaindhavam salile yatha/
Tatha sandhiyamanam cha manastattve viliyate//
As camphor burnt in fire, and salt mix in the sea, in samadhi mind dissolves into ‘Thatness’. (Chapter -4, Verse 59).
Knower, known and knowing united
Jneyam sarvam pratitam cha jnanam cha mana uchyate/
Jnanam jneyam samam nashtam nanyah pantha dvitiyakah//
All that can be known, all that is known and the knowledge, is called mind. When the knower and that which is known are lost together, there is no second way. (Chapter -4, Verse 60).
Nada anusandhana – exploration of sound “OM”
Nada anusandhana – exploration of sound”OM” – Closing the ears, nose and mouth, a clear, clear sound is heard in the purified sushumna nadi
Muktasane sthito yogi mudram sandhaya sambhavim/
Śrnuyad dakshine karne nadam antastham ekadhih//
The Hatha Yogi, sitting in Muktasana, concentrated in shambhavi mudra, should hear closely to the nada heard within the right ear. (Chapter -4, Verse 67).
Sravanaputanayanayughala Ghranamukhanam nirodhanam karyam /
Suddhasushumnasaranau Sphutamamalah sruyate nadah//
Closing the ears, nose and mouth, a clear sound is heard in the cleansed sushumna nadi. (Chapter -4, Verse 68).
Four states of Yogic practice and hearing the Nada sound
Arambhas cha ghatas chaiva tatha parichayoa pi cha/
Nishpattih sarvayogheshu syad avasthachatushtayam//
In all the Hatha Yogic practices there are four states; arambha, beginning; ghata, vessel; parichaya, increase; nishpatti, consummation.(Chapter -4, Verse 69).
Arambha avastha (beginning stage) – When the Hatha Yogi experiences arambha in the void of the heart, his body becomes lustrous and brilliant with a divine smell and diseaseless
Brahmaghranther bhaved bhedad anandah sunyasambhavah/
Vichitrah kvanako dehe anahatah sruyate dhvanih//
The Brahma granthi being pierced, the feeling of bliss arises from the nothingness; wondrous, tinkling sounds and the spontaneous sound anahata are heard within the body. (Chapter -4, Verse 70).
Divyadehas cha tejasvi divyaghandhas tvaroghavan/
Sampurnahrdayah sunya arambhe yogavan bhavet//
When the Hatha Yogi feels arambha in the void of the heart, his body becomes lustrous and brilliant with a divine smell and diseaseless. (Chapter -4, Verse 71).
Ghata avastha (vessel stage) – Vishnu granthi is pierced the greatest bliss is revealed. Then from that emptiness the sound of the kettledrum appears
Dvitiyayam ghatikrtya vayurbhavati madhyaghah /
Drdhasano bhaved yogi jnani devasamas tada//
In the second stage, when ghata is reached, the Shakti moves into the middle nadi. Being remain in his asana the wise Hatha Yogi is comparable to a divine being. (Chapter -4, Verse 72).
Vishnughranthes tato bhedat paramanandasuchakah /
Atisunye vimardas cha bherisabdas tada bhavet//
When the Vishnu granthi is pierced the greatest bliss is revealed. Then from that emptiness the sound of the kettledrum appears. (Chapter -4, Verse 73).
Parichaya avastha-stage of increase – Sound of the drum, perfection or siddhi. Imbalance of the three humours or doshas, pain, old age, disease, hunger,sleep are destroyed
Trtiyayam tu vijneyo vihayo mardaladhvanih /
Mahasunyam tada yati sarvasiddhisamasrayam//
In the third stage is the experience of the sound of the drum. Then there is the great emptiness and one enters the place of total perfection or siddhi. (Chapter -4, Verse 74).
Chittanandam tada jitva sahajanandasambhavah /
Then the bliss of chitta being obtained, spontaneous ecstasy arises. Imbalance of the three humours or doshas, pain, old age, disease, hunger, sleep are destroyed. (Chapter -4, Verse 75).
Nishpatti avastha or state of consummation – Rudra granthi is pierced, the fire of prana flows to the place of Ishwara. Then in the state of nishpatti or consummation is the tinkling sound of the flute resonating like a vina
Rudraghranthim yada bhittva sarvapithaghatoanilah/
Nishpattau vainavah sabdah kvanadvinakvano bhavet//
If the Rudra granthi is pierced, the fire of prana flows to the place of Ishwara. Then in the state of nishpatti or consummation is the tinkling sound of the flute resonating like a vina.(Chapter -4, Verse 76).
Sound is shakti and dissolves in consciousness(102).
Yatkinchin nadarupena sruyate saktireva sa /
Yas tattvanto nirakarah sa eva paramesvarah//
Whatever is heard of the nature of the mystical nada or sound is verily Shakti. That in which all the panchatattwa elements find dissolution, that is the formless being, the supreme God. (Chapter -4, Verse 102).
Concentration on nada burns ‘bad karma’ – Bad karma’(sin) is destroyed by constant concentration on nada. The finite mind and prana dissolve into the spotless niranjana.
Sada nadanusandhanat kshiyante papasamchayah/
Niranjane viliyete niśchitam chittamarutau//
Sin is eliminated by constant concentration on nada or sound. The finite mind and prana dissolve into the spotless niranjana state. (Chapter -4, Verse 105).