Disorders of blood pressure
Hypertension is a rise in blood pressure above normal. It’s difficult to define the average normal blood pressure. It varies from one age group to other. The blood pressure in an adult may be 120/80. Hypertension has a strong relation with life style regardless of gender and socio-economic status. The systolic blood pressure(BP) greater than or equal to140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP greater than or equal to 90 mmHg is currently the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for hypertension. The management of hypertension is a major public health challenge in developing countries, even though a wide range of antihypertensives are developed and prescribed for the management of hypertension. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular diseases and kidney disorders.
Hypotension is low blood pressure which can be physiological in health during rest and in elderly. Mostly it occurs as a complication of other diseases e.g. shock, myocardial infarction, and hemorrhage. Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for some people. Low blood pressure leads to inadequate blood supply to the brain. It may produce brief unconsciousness, fainting. if this is prolonged, death may occur. Severe hypotension can be caused by sudden loss of blood (shock), severe infection, heart attack, or severe allergic reaction.