Chaturvargas is a concept in Hindu philosophy that refers to the four-fold objectives of human life. The term is derived from two words, “Chatur” meaning four and “Vargas” meaning pursuits or goals. The four pursuits of human life according to this concept are:
1. Dharma: This refers to righteousness, ethical values, and duties. It involves living a life based on moral and social values and fulfilling one’s obligations towards oneself and society.
2. Artha: This refers to material wealth, prosperity, and success. It involves earning money, accumulating wealth, and fulfilling one’s material desires.
3. Kama: This refers to pleasure, enjoyment, and desire. It involves fulfilling one’s sensual and emotional needs and desires.
4. Moksha: This refers to liberation, spiritual enlightenment, and transcendence. It involves realizing one’s true nature and achieving ultimate liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
According to the Chaturvargas concept, all human beings are born with these four objectives and the pursuit of each objective is important for a balanced and fulfilling life. The ultimate goal, however, is to achieve moksha, which is considered the highest and most important pursuit.
Purushartha is a Sanskrit term that refers to the four aims or goals of human life according to Hindu philosophy. These four aims are:
1. Dharma: It means righteousness, duty, or moral values. It is the fulfillment of one’s social and moral duties and responsibilities towards oneself, family, society, and the world.
2. Artha: It means wealth, prosperity, and material well-being. It includes earning money, accumulating wealth, and fulfilling one’s economic needs and desires.
3. Kama: It means pleasure, enjoyment, and sensual fulfillment. It includes satisfying one’s physical, emotional, and sexual desires and aspirations.
4. Moksha: It means liberation, freedom, or enlightenment. It is the ultimate goal of life, which involves the liberation of the soul from the cycle of birth and death, and attaining union with the divine.
The purusharthas are considered to be interdependent and mutually supportive. In order to achieve the ultimate goal of Moksha, one must follow the principles of Dharma, accumulate wealth (Artha) in a righteous manner, and fulfill one’s desires (Kama) within the boundaries of Dharma.