Abnormal Breathing and Breathing Disorders
Apnea:Absence of breathing.
Orthopnea:Only able to breathe comfortably in upright, unable to breath laying down
Dyspnea: Subjective sensation related by patient as to breathing difficulty
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea – attacks of severe shortness of breath that wake a person from sleep, such that they have to sit up to catch their breath – common in patients with congestive heart failure.
Hyperventilation: Hyperventilation occurs when the rate and quantity of alveolar ventilation of carbon dioxide exceed the body’s production of carbon dioxide.
Hypoventilation: Hypoventilation occurs when ventilation is inadequate to perform needed gas exchange. Hypoventilation is considered a precursor to hypoxia and its lethality is attributed to hypoxia with carbon dioxide toxicity.
Cheyne-Stokes respirations (CSR): Gradual increase in volume and frequency, followed by a gradual decrease in volume and frequency, with apnea periods of 10 – 30 seconds between cycle. Described as a crescendo – decrescendo pattern. Characterized by cyclic waxing and waning ventilation with apnea gradually giving way to hyperpneic breathing.