1. Define Gaseous Exchange.
[VP] – The transfer of gases between an organism and the external environment in either direction. It occurs by diffusion across a concentration gradient and includes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in respiration and photosynthesis. Successful gaseous exchange requires a large surface area, as is provided by the alveoli of the lungs and the leaves of plants.
2. Importance of pleura during respiration.
[VP] – The pleura fluid itself has a slightly adhesive quality that helps draw the lungs outward during inhalation rather than slipping round in the chest cavity. In addition, pleural fluid creates surface tension that helps maintain the position of the lungs against the chest wall.
3. Define vital capacity
[VP] – Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can inhale after a maximum exhalation. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume.
4. Mention quadriceps muscles
[VP] – The quadriceps are a group of muscles present on the front of the thigh. They consist of four distinct muscles: the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, the vastus intermedius, and the vastus medialis. They are responsible for extending the leg and helping with movements such as walking and jumping.
5. Mention hamstring muscles.
[VP] – Hamstring muscles are in the back of the thigh, starting at the hip and inserting to the knee. The three hamstring muscles are:
· Biceps femoris, closest to the outside of your body. The function of this hamstring is to flex your knee, extend the thigh at your hip and rotate your lower leg from side-to-side when your knee is bent.
Semimembranosus, closest to the middle of your body. This hamstring flexes your knee joint, extends your thigh at your hip and offers medial rotation for your hip and lower leg.
Semitendinosus, between the semimembranosus and the biceps femoris. The function of this hamstring matches that of the semimembranosus.
6. Explain about slow twitch muscle fiber (type -1), with respective hatha yoga style.
[VP] – Slow-twitch, or Type I muscle fibers, are skeletal muscle fibers that slowly contract. Slow-twitch muscle fibers support everyday actions, like standing from a seated position and maintaining normal posture.
Sun Salutation can be the respective hatha yoga style
7. Explain about Fast twitch muscle fiber (type -2), with hatha yoga practices.
[VP] – The greater your aerobic capacity, the longer your muscles can function without fatiguing or burning out. Type IIa fibers have more potential for increased aerobic capacity, whereas Type IIb fibers produce the highest energy forces within the quickest window of fatigue.
8. Explain Aerobic hatha yoga
[VP] – This takes place with oxygen where carbohydrate and oxygen are used as fuel for the first two minutes after which fat is burned. These are lower intensity activities.
More fat for energy is used and leads to a better ability to burn fat.
Blood vessels increase and become bigger to accommodate the oxygen being used.
It changes the composition of muscle fibers which contract slower and at a lower intensity. Aerobic activity increases this type one muscles which increases endurance and performance.
Aerobic activity increases mitochondria which improved the aerobic capacity of muscles.
9. Explain anaerobic hatha yoga.
[VP] – This happens without oxygen, fuel comes from muscle storage and is short, highly intense and burns fat directly. Example is weightlifting.
More fast twitch muscle fibres are produced for strength.
It increases lactic acid tolerance for endurance.
It increases glycolysis, ATP, CP and creatine.
10. Define Isometric Contraction and explain with respective asanas.
[VP] – This is a contraction in which movement does not take place, because the tension generated by the contracting muscle exceeds the load on the muscle. This occurs when you use your muscles to successfully push or pull an object
Isometric contractions are very common in yoga, particularly when poses are held for several breaths. Thus, when you hold any pose, the contractions are likely isometric.
11. Define Isotonic Contraction and explain with respective asanas.
Downward movement of joint. Tension is produced when the muscle lengthens.
Upward movement. Tension is produced when the muscle shortens. Causes joint movement.
When you move in and out of a pose, you are likely using concentric and eccentric contractions