Karuna Yoga Vidya Peetham Bangalore

Anatomical directional terminology

  1. Define the directional term “superior” Towards the head or top, eg. Head
  2. Define the directional term “cranial” Cranial refers to the skull
  3. Define the directional term “posterior or dorsal”

Refers to behind or back of the body eg. Shoulder blades

  1. Lateral

Refers to away from the midline of the body or towards the side of the body. Eg. The thumb

  1. Proximal

Refers to the nearest to the trunk or the point of attachment.

  1. Distal

Refers to away from the trunk or away from point of attachment.

  1. The coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior. Movements along this plane are called adduction (towards the midline) and abduction (away from the midline)


  1. The sagittal plane divides the body into right and left. Movements along this plane are called flexion (moving forward except for the knee) and extension (moving the extremity backward).


  1. The transverse plane divides the body into upper and lower halves. Movements along this plane is called rotations. Medial/ internal rotations are towards the midline or lateral/ external rotations are away from the midline.


9. Medial plane is the plane when the sagittal plane cuts the body into two equal halves and passes through the midline.


10. How many body cavities in the human body?

The cavities are the fluid-filled spaces in the human body that hold and protect the internal organs, or viscera. The human body is primarily divided into two body cavities: the ventral and dorsal cavities.


The ventral cavity is the larger cavity and is divided into thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities.

The upper ventral cavity is called the thoracic cavity, it fills the chest and is divided into the pleural cavity that holds the lungs and the pericardial cavity that holds the heart.


The abdominopelvic cavity fills the lower half of the trunk and is divided into an abdominal cavity that holds the digestive organs (GIT) and kidneys and the pelvic cavity contains reproductive and excretory organs.


The dorsal cavity is at the posterior or back side of the body. It includes both the head and back of the trunk. It is divided into cranial and spinal cavities. The cranial cavity holds the upper part of the skull and contains the brain. The spinal/ vertebral cavity is a long narrow cavity that runs inside the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord.



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