1. Flexion and Extension are movements that take place along the sagittal plane and involve anterior or posterior movements of the body.
Flexion is an anterior-directed movement; eg. Bending the forearm at the elbow.
The extension is a posteriorly directed movement; eg. Straightening of the bent forearm.
2. Abduction is the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.
Adduction is the movement of a limb towards the midline of the body.
3. Lateral rotation and medial rotation; rotations are movements when a bone moves around or within another bone.
- The lateral rotation occurs towards the lateral direction.
- The medial rotation occurs towards the medial direction.
4. Supination and Pronation are movements of the forearm. the upper limb is held next to the body with the palm facing forward. This is the supinated position of the forearm. In this position, the radius and ulna are parallel to each other. When the palm of the hand faces backward, the forearm is in the pronated position, and the radius and ulna form an X-shape.
5. Circumduction is the movement of a body region in a circular manner, in which one end of the body mode stays relatively stationary and the other end describes a circle. It involves the sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction at a joint. Eg. Arm rotations.
6. Protraction and Retraction are anterior-posterior movements of the scapula or mandible.
Protraction moves the scapula forward (anteriorly) and toward the side of the body (laterally). Retraction is the opposite movement; shoulder blades move back and medially.
7. Inversion and Eversion.
Eversion: Tilting of the foot so the sole faces away from the midline.
Inversion: Tilting of the foot so the sole faces into the midline.
8. Elevation and Depression
The terms elevation and depression refer to movement above and below the horizontal. Elevation refers to movement in a superior direction. Depression refers to movement in an inferior direction.
9.Dorsiflexion and Plantar flexion
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion refer to the extension or flexion of the foot at the ankle. Dorsiflexion is where the toes are brought closer to the shin. This decreases the angle between the dorsum of the foot and the leg. Plantar flexion or plantarflexion is the movement that decreases the angle between the sole of the foot and the back of the leg.